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Epistles of St. Paul, Romans - Galatians



He commends the faith of the Romans, whom he longs to see.  The philosophy of the heathens, being void of faith and humility, betrayed them into shameful sins.

1 Paul, a servant of Jesus Christ, called to be an apostle, separated unto the gospel of God,
2 Which he had promised before by his prophets in the holy Scriptures,
3 Concerning his Son, who was made to him of the seed of David, according to the flesh,
4 Who was predestinated the Son of God in power, according to the spirit of sanctification, by the resurrection of our Lord Jesus Christ from the dead:
5 By whom we have received grace and apostleship, for obedience to the faith, in all nations for his name,
6 Among whom are you also the called of Jesus Christ:
7 To all that are at Rome, the beloved of God, called to be saints.  Grace to you, and peace from God, our Father, and from the Lord Jesus Christ.
8 First I give thanks to my God, through Jesus Christ, for you all, because your faith is spoken of in the whole world.
9 For God is my witness, whom I serve in my spirit in the gospel of his Son, that, without ceasing, I make a commemoration of you
10 Always in my prayers: beseeching, if by any means I may at length have a prosperous journey, by the will of God, in coming to you.
11 For I long to see you, that I may impart unto you some spiritual grace, to strengthen you:
12 That is to say, that I may be comforted together in you, by that which is common to us both, your faith and mine.
13 And I would not have you ignorant, brethren, that I have often purposed to come to you, (and have been hindered hitherto) that I might have some fruit among you also, even as among other Gentiles.
14 To the Greeks, and to the Barbarians, to the wise, and to the unwise, I am a debtor:
15 So (as much as is in me) I am ready to preach the gospel to you also that are at Rome.
16 For I am not ashamed of the gospel.  For it is the power of God unto salvation, to every one that believeth, to the Jew first, and to the Greek.
17 For the justice of God is revealed therein from faith to faith: as it is written: *The just man liveth by faith.
18 For the wrath of God is revealed from heaven, against all impiety and injustice of those men that detain the truth of God in injustice.
19 Because that which is known of God is manifest in them.  For God hath manifested it to them.
20 For the invisible things of him, from the creation of the world, are clearly seen, being understood by the things that are made: his eternal power also and divinity: so that they are inexcusable.
21 *Because that, when they knew God, they did not glorify him as God, or given thanks: but became vain in their thoughts, and their foolish heart was darkened:
22 For professing themselves to be wise, they became fools.
23 *And they changed the glory of the incorruptible God, into the likeness of the image of a corruptible man, and of birds, and of four-footed beasts, and of creeping things.
24 Wherefore God gave them up to the desires of their heart, *to uncleanness: to dishonour their own bodies among themselves.
25 Who changed the truth of God into a lie: and worshipped and served the creature rather than the Creator, who is blessed for ever.  Amen.
26 For this cause God delivered them up to shameful affections.  For their women have changed the natural use into that use which is against nature.
27 And, in like manner the men also, leaving the natural use of the woman, have burned in their lusts one towards another, men with men working that which is filthy, and receiving in themselves the recompense which was due to their error.
28 And as they liked not to have God in their knowledge; God delivered them up to a reprobate sense, to do those things which are not convenient,
29 Being filled with all iniquity, malice, fornication, avarice, wickedness, full of envy, murder, contention, deceit, malignity, whisperers,
30 Detractors, hateful to God, contumelious, proud, haughty, inventors of evil things, disobedient to parents,
31 Foolish, dissolute, without affection, without fidelity, without mercy.
32 Who, having known the justice of God, did not understand that they, who do such things, are worthy of death: and not only they who do them, but they also who consent to them that do them.
17:  Habac. ii. 4.; Gal. iii. 11.; Heb. x. 38.
21:  Ephes. iv. 17.
23:  Ps. cv. 20.; Jer. xi. 10.
24:  Gal. v. 19.; Ephes. iv. 19. and v. 3.; Col. iii. 5.; 1 Thes. ii. 3. and iv. 7.


The Jews are censured, who make their boast of the law, and keep it not.  He declares who are the true Jews.

1 Wherefore thou art inexcusable, O man, whosoever thou art that judgest.*  For wherein thou judgest another, thou condemnest thyself: For thou dost the same things which thou judgest.
2 For we know that the judgment of God is, according to truth, against them that do such things.
3 And thinkest thou this, O man, that judgest them who do such things, and dost the same, that thou shalt escape the judgment of God?
4 Or despisest thou the riches of his goodness, and patience, and longsuffering?* knowest thou not that the benignity of God leadeth thee to penance?
5 But according to thy hardness, and impenitent heart, thou treasurest up to thyself wrath, against the day of wrath, and revelation of the just judgment of God,
6 *Who will render to every man according to his works:
7 To them indeed, who, according to patience in good work, seek glory, and honour, and incorruption, life everlasting:
8 But to them that are contentious, and who obey not the truth, but give credit to iniquity, wrath and indignation.
9 Tribulation and anguish upon every soul of man that worketh evil, of the Jew first, and also of the Greek.
10 But glory, and honour, and peace, to every one that worketh good, to the Jew first, and also to the Greek.
11 *For there is no respect of persons with God.
12 For whosoever have sinned without the law, shall perish without the law: and whosoever have sinned in the law, shall be judged by the law.
13 *For not the hearers of the law are just before God, but the doers of the law shall be justified.
14 For when the Gentiles, who have not the law, do by nature those things that are of the law; these having not the law, are a law to themselves:
15 Who shew the work of the law written in their hearts, their conscience bearing witness to them, and their thoughts between themselves accusing, or excusing them,
16 In the day when God shall judge the secrets of men, by Jesus Christ, according to my gospel.
17 *But if thou art called a Jew, and restest in the law, and makest thy boast of God,
18 And knowest his will, *and approvest the things that are more profitable, being instructed by the law,
19 Art confident that thou thyself art a guide of the blind, a light of them that are in darkness,
20 An instructor of the foolish, a teacher of infants, having the form of knowledge and of truth in the law.
21 Thou, therefore, that teachest another, teachest not thyself: thou that preachest that men should not steal, stealest:
22 Thou that sayest, men should not commit adultery, committest adultery: thou that abhorrest idols, committest sacrilege:
23 Thou that makest thy boast of the law, by the transgression of the law dishonourest God.
24 *(For the name of God, through you, is blasphemed among the Gentiles, as it is written.)
25 Circumcision profiteth indeed if thou keep the law: but if thou be a transgressor of the law, thy circumcision is made uncircumcision.
26 If then the uncircumcised keep the ordinances of the law, shall not his uncircumcision be reputed for circumcision?
27 *And shall not that which by nature is uncircumcision, if it fulfil the law, judge thee, who by the letter and circumcision art a transgressor of the law?
28 *For it is not he is a Jew, who is so outwardly: nor is that circumcision which is outwardly in the flesh:
29 But he is a Jew that is one inwardly: and the circumcision is that of the heart, in the spirit, not in the letter: whose praise is not of men, but of God.
1:  Matt. vii. 2.
4:  Wisd. ix. 24.; 2 Pet. iii. 2.
6:  Matt. xvi. 27.
11:  Deut. x. 17.; 2 Par. xix. 7.; Job xxxiv. 19.; Wisd. vi. 8.; Eccli. xv. 35.; Acts x. 34.; Eph. vi. 9.; Col. iii. 25.; 1 Pet. i. 17.
13:  Matt. vii. 21.; James i. 22.
17:  Apoc. xi. 9.
18:  Phil. i. 10.
24:  Isai. lii. 5.; Ezec. xxxvi. 20.
27:  Matt. xii. 42.
28:  Isai. xlviii.


The advantages of the Jews.  All men are sinners, and none can be justified by the works of the law, but only by the grace of Christ.

1 What advantage then hath the Jew, or what is the profit of circumcision?
2 Much every way.  First indeed, *because the words of God were committed to them.
3 For what if some of them have not believed? *shall their unbelief make the faith of God without effect?  God forbid.
4 *But God is true: and every man a liar, as it is written: **that thou mayest be justified in thy words, and mayest overcome when thou art judged.
5 But if our injustice commend the justice of God, what shall we say?  Is God unjust, who executeth wrath?
6 (I speak according to man).  God forbid: otherwise how shall God judge this world?
7 For if the truth of God hath more abounded through my lie, unto his glory: why am I also yet judged as a sinner?
8 And not rather (as we are slandered, and as some affirm that we say) let us do evil, that there may come good: whose damnation is just.
9 What then?  Do we excel them?  By no means.  *For we have charged both Jews, and Greeks, that they are all under sin.
10 As it is written: *There is not any man just:
11 There is none that understandeth, there is none that seeketh after God.
12 All have turned out of the way; they are become unprofitable together: there is none that doth good, there is not so much as one.
13 *Their throat is an open sepulchre, with their tongues they have dealt deceitfully: **The venom of asps is under their lips:
14 *Whose mouth is full of cursing and bitterness:
15 *Their feet are swift to shed blood:
16 Destruction and misery are in their ways:
17 And the way of peace they have not known:
18 *There is no fear of God before their eyes.
19 *Now we know that what things soever the law speaketh, it speaketh to them that are in the law: that every mouth may be stopped, and all the world may be made subject to God:
20 Because by the works of the law no flesh shall be justified before him.  For by the law is the knowledge of sin.
21 But now without the law the justice of God is made manifest: being witnessed by the law and the prophets.
22 Even the justice of God, by faith of Jesus Christ, unto all and upon all that believe in him: for there is no distinction:
23 For all have sinned, and do need the glory of God.
24 Being justified gratis by his grace, through the redemption that is in Christ Jesus,
25 Whom God hath set forth to be a propitiation through faith in his blood, to the shewing of his justice, for the remission of past sins,
26 Through the forbearance of God for the shewing of his justice in this time: that he himself may be just, and the justifier of him who is of the faith of Jesus Christ.
27 Where is then thy boasting?  It is excluded.  By what law?  Of works?  No: but by the law of faith.
28 For we account a man to be justified by faith without the works of the law.
29 Is he the God of the Jews only?  Is he not also of the Gentiles?  Yes, of the Gentiles also.
30 For it is one God who justifieth circumcision by faith, and uncircumcision through faith.
31 Do we then destroy the law through faith?  God forbid: but we establish the law.
2:  Infra ix. 4.
3:  2 Tim. ii. 13.
4:  John iii. 33.; Ps. cxv. 11. --- ** Ps. l. 6.
9:  Gal. iii. 22.; Supra i. 17.; Infra xi. 9.
10:  Ps. xiii. 3.
13:  Ps. v. 11.; James iii. 8. --- ** Ps. cxxxix. 4.
14:  Ps. ix. 7.
15:  Isai. lix. 7.; Prov. i. 16.
18:  Ps. xxxv. 2.
19:  Gal. ii. 16.


Abraham was not justified by works done, as of himself: but by grace, and by faith; and that before he was circumcised. Gentiles by faith are his children.

1 What shall we say, then, that Abraham hath found, who is our father according to the flesh.
2 For if Abraham were justified by works, he hath glory, but not with God.
3 For what saith the Scripture?  *Abraham believed God, and it was reputed to him unto justice.
4 Now to him that worketh, the reward is not reckoned according to grace, but according to debt.
5 But to him that worketh not, yet believeth in him that justifieth the impious, his faith is reputed to justice, according to the purpose of the grace of God.
6 As David also termeth the blessedness of a man, to whom God reputeth justice without works:
7 Blessed are they, whose *iniquities are forgiven, and whose sins are covered.
8 Blessed is the man, to whom the Lord hath not imputed sin.
9 This blessedness, then, doth it abide in the circumcision only, or in the uncircumcision also?  For we say that faith was reputed to Abraham unto justice.
10 How then was it reputed?  In circumcision, or in uncircumcision?  Not in circumcision, but in uncircumcision.
11 *And he received the sign of circumcision, a seal of the justice of the faith, which is in uncircumcision: that he might be the father of all the believers uncircumcised, that to them also it may be reputed to justice:
12 And might be the father of circumcision, not to them only that are of the circumcision, but to them also who follow the steps of the faith, that our father Abraham had, and being as yet uncircumcised.
13 *For not through the law was the promise to Abraham or to his seed, that he should be heir of the world, but through the justice of faith.
14 For if they who are of the law, be heirs: faith is made void, the promise is made of no effect.
15 For the law worketh wrath.  For where there is no law, there is no transgression.
16 Therefore it is of faith, that according to grace the promise might be firm to all the seed; not to that only which is of the law, but to that also which is of the faith of Abraham, who is the father of us all,
17 (As it is written, *I have made thee a father of many nations) before God, whom he believed, who quickeneth the dead, and calleth those things that are not, as those that are.
18 Who, against hope, believed in hope, that he might be made the father of many nations, according to that which was said to him: *So shall thy seed be.
19 And he was not weak in faith: neither did he consider his own body now dead, whereas he was almost a hundred years old, nor the dead womb of Sara.
20 In the promise also of God he staggered not by distrust: but was strengthened in faith, giving glory to God:
21 Most fully knowing that whatsoever he has promised, he is able also to perform.
22 And therefore it was reputed to him unto justice.
23 Now it is not written only for him, that it was reputed to him unto justice:
24 But for us also, to whom it shall be reputed, if we believe in him, *that raised up Jesus Christ, our Lord, from the dead,
25 *Who was delivered up for our sins, and rose again for our justification.
3:  Gen. xv. 6.; Gal. iii. 6.; James ii. 23.
7:  Ps. xxxi. 1.
11:  Gen. xvii. 10. and 11.
13:  Gal. iii. 18.; Heb. xi. 9.
17:  Gen. xvii. 4.
18:  Gen. xv. 5.
24:  1 Pet. ii. 21.
25:  Isai. liii. 6.; 1 Pet. i. 3.


The grounds we have for hope in Christ.  Sin and death came by Adam: grace and life by Christ.

1 Therefore, being justified by faith, let us have peace with God, through our Lord Jesus Christ.
2 *By whom also we have access through faith into this grace, wherein we stand, and glory in the hope of the glory of the sons of God.
3 And not only so, but we glory also in tribulations: *knowing that tribulation worketh patience:
4 And patience trial, and trial hope;
5 *And hope confoundeth not: because the charity of God is poured out into our hearts, by the Holy Ghost, who is given to us.
6 For why did Christ, when as yet we were weak, according to the time, *die for the ungodly?
7 For scarce for a just man will one die: yet perhaps for a good man some one would venture to die.
8 But God commendeth his charity towards us; because when as yet we were sinners, according to the time,
9 Christ died for us: much more, therefore, being now justified by his blood, shall we be saved from wrath through him.
10 For if, when we were enemies, we were reconciled to God by the death of his Son: much more being reconciled, shall we be saved by his life.
11 And not only so: but also we glory in God, through our Lord Jesus Christ, by whom we have now received reconciliation.
12 Wherefore, as by one man sin entered into this world, and by sin death, and so death passed upon all men, in whom all have sinned.
13 For until the law, sin was in the world: but sin was not imputed, when the law was not.
14 But death reigned from Adam unto Moses, even over them that had not sinned after the similitude of the transgression of Adam, who is a figure of him that was to come.
15 But not as the offence, so also the gift: for if by the offence of one, many have died: much more the grace of God, and the gift in the grace of one man, Jesus Christ, hath abounded unto many.
16 And not as it was by one sin, so also is the gift: for judgment indeed was by one unto condemnation: but the grace is of many offences, unto justification.
17 For if by one man's offence, death reigned through one: much more they who receive abundance of grace, and of the gift, and of justice, shall reign in life, through one, Jesus Christ.
18 Therefore, as by the offence of one, unto all men to condemnation: so also by the justice of one, unto all men unto justification of life.
19 *For as by the disobedience of one man, many were made sinners: so also by the obedience of one, many shall be made just.
20 Now the law entered in, that sin might abound.  But where sin abounded, grace hath abounded more.
21 That as sin hath reigned unto death, so also grace might reign by justice, unto everlasting life, through Jesus Christ our Lord.
2:  Ephes. ii. 18.
3:  James i. 3.
5:  Psal. xxii. 6.
6:  Heb. ix. 14.; 1 Pet. iii. 18.
19:  Philip. xi. 8. and 9.


The Christian must die to sin, and live to God.

1 What shall we say, then? shall we continue in sin, that grace may abound?
2 God forbid.  For how shall we that are dead to sin, *live any longer therein?
3 Know you not that all we, who are baptized in Christ Jesus, are baptized in his death?
4 *For we are buried together with him by baptism unto death: that as Christ is risen from the dead by the glory of the Father, **so we also may walk in newness of life.
5 For if we have been planted together in the likeness of his death, in like manner we shall be also of his resurrection.
6 Knowing this, that our old man is crucified with him, that the body of sin may be destroyed, and that we may serve sin no longer.
7 For he that is dead, is justified from sin.
8 Now if we be dead with Christ, we believe that we shall live also together with Christ:
9 Knowing that Christ rising again from the dead, dieth now no more, death shall no more have dominion over him.
10 For in that he died to sin, he died once: but in that he liveth, he liveth unto God:
11 So do you also reckon yourselves to be dead indeed to sin, but alive to God in Christ Jesus, our Lord.
12 Let not sin, therefore, reign in your mortal body, so as to obey the lusts thereof.
13 *Neither yield ye your members as instruments of iniquity unto sin: but present yourselves to God as those that are alive from the dead: and your members as instruments of justice unto God.
14 For sin shall not have dominion over you: for you are not under the law, but under grace.
15 What then?  Shall we sin, because we are not under the law, but under grace?  God forbid.
16 *Know you not, that to whom you yield yourselves servants to obey, his servants you are whom you obey, whether it be of sin unto death, or of obedience unto justice.
17 But thanks be to God, that you were the servants of sin, but have obeyed from the heart, unto that form of doctrine, into which you have been delivered.
18 Being then freed from sin, you are become the servants of justice.
19 I speak a human thing, because of the infirmity of your flesh: for as you have yielded your members to serve uncleanness, and iniquity, unto iniquity: so now yield your members to serve justice unto sanctification.
20 For when you were the servants of sin, you were free from justice.
21 What fruit, therefore, had you then in those things, of which you are now ashamed?  For the end of them is death.
22 But now being made free from sin, and become servants to God, you have your fruit unto sanctification, and the end everlasting life.
23 For the wages of sin is death.  But the grace of God, everlasting life, in Christ Jesus, our Lord.
2:  2 Pet. ii. 22.
4:  Gal. iii. 27.; Col. ii. 12. --- ** Ephes. iv. 13.; Heb. xii. 1.; 1 Pet. ii. 1. and iv. 2.
13:  Col. iii. 5.
16:  John viii. 34.; 2 Pet. ii. 19.


We are released by Christ from the law, and from the guilt of sin: though the inclination to it still tempts us.

1 Know you not, brethren, (for I speak to them that know the law) that the law hath dominion over a man as long as it liveth?
2 *For the woman that hath a husband, whilst her husband liveth, is bound to the law: but if her husband be dead, she is loosed from the law of her husband.
3 Wherefore, whilst her husband liveth, she shall be called an adulteress, if she be with another man: but if her husband be dead, she is free from the law of her husband: so that she is not an adulteress, if she be with another man.
4 Therefore, my brethren, you also are become dead to the law, by the body of Christ: that you may belong to another, who is risen again from the dead, that we may bring forth fruit to God.
5 For when we were in the flesh, the passions of sins, which were by the law, did work in our members, to bring forth fruit unto death.
6 But now we are loosed from the law of death, wherein we were detained; so that we should serve in newness of spirit, and not in the oldness of the letter.
7 What shall we say then?  Is the law sin?  God forbid.  But I did not know sin, but by the law: for I had not known concupiscence, if the law had not said: *Thou shalt not covet.
8 But sin, taking occasion by the commandment, wrought in me all manner of concupiscence.  For without the law, sin was dead.
9 And I lived some time without the law.  But when the commandment came, sin revived,
10 And I died: and the commandment, that was ordained to life, the same was found to be unto death to me.
11 For sin, taking occasion by the commandment, seduced me, and by it killed me.
12 *Wherefore the law indeed is holy, and the commandment holy, and just, and good.
13 Was that then which is good, made death to me?  God forbid.  But sin, that it may appear sin, by that which is good, wrought death in me: that sin, by the commandment, might become sinful above measure.
14 For we know that the law is spiritual; but I am carnal, sold under sin.
15 For that which I work, I understand not.  For I do not that good which I will, but the evil which I hate, that I do.
16 If, then, I do that which I will not, I consent to the law, that it is good.
17 Now, then, it is no more I that do it; but sin that dwelleth in me.
18 For I know that there dwelleth not in me, that is to say, in my flesh, that which is good.  For to will, is present with me; but to accomplish that which is good, I find not.
19 For the good which I will, I do not: but the evil which I will not, that I do.
20 Now if I do that which I will not, it is no more I that do it, but sin that dwelleth in me.
21 I find then a law, that when I have a will to do good, evil is present with me.
22 For I am delighted with the law of God, *according to the inward man:
23 But I see another law in my members, fighting against the law of my mind, and captivating me in the law of sin, that is in my members.
24 Unhappy man that I am: who shall deliver me from the body of this death?
25 The grace of God, by Jesus Christ our Lord.  Therefore, I myself, with the mind, serve the law of God: but with the flesh, the law of sin.
2:  1  Cor. vii. 39.
7:  Exod. xx. 17.; Deut. v. 21.
12:  1 Tim. i. 8.
22:  1 Pet. iii. 4.


There is no condemnation to them, who being justified by Christ, walk not according to the flesh, but according to the spirit. Their strong hope, and love of God.

1 There is, therefore, now no condemnation to them who are in Christ Jesus, who walk not according to the flesh.
2 For the law of the spirit of life, in Christ Jesus, hath freed me from the law of sin, and of death.
3 *For what the law could not do, in that it was weak through the flesh: God sending his own Son, in the likeness of sinful flesh, even of sin, condemned sin in the flesh,
4 That the justification of the law might be fulfilled in us, who walk not according to the flesh, but according to the spirit.
5 For they who are according to the flesh, relish the things that are of the flesh: but they who are according to the spirit, mind the things which are of the spirit.
6 For the wisdom of the flesh is death: but the wisdom of the spirit is life and peace.
7 Because the wisdom of the flesh is an enemy to God: for it is not subject to the law of God, neither can it be.
8 And they who are in the flesh, cannot please God.
9 But you are not in the flesh, but in the spirit, if so be that the Spirit of God dwell in you.  Now if any man have not the Spirit of Christ, he is none of his.
10 And if Christ be in you, the body, indeed, is dead, because of sin, but the spirit liveth, because of justification.
11 *And if the Spirit of him, who raised up Jesus from the dead, dwell in you: he that raised up Jesus Christ from the dead, shall quicken also your mortal bodies, because of his spirit that dwelleth in you.
12 Therefore, brethren, we are debtors, not to the flesh, to live according to the flesh.
13 For if you live according to the flesh, you shall die: but if by the spirit you mortify the deeds of the flesh, you shall live.
14 For whosoever are led by the Spirit of God, they are the sons of God.
15 *For you have not received the spirit of bondage again in fear: but you have received the spirit of **adoption of sons, whereby we cry: Abba, (Father.)
16 For the Spirit himself giveth testimony to our spirit, that we are the sons of God.
17 And if sons, heirs also: heirs indeed of God, and joint-heirs with Christ: yet so, if we suffer with him, that we may be also glorified with him.
18 For I reckon, that the sufferings of this present time are not worthy to be compared with the glory to come, that shall be revealed in us.
19 For the expectation of the creature waiteth for the revelation of the sons of God.
20 For the creature was made subject to vanity, not willingly, but by reason of him, that made it subject in hope:
21 Because the creature also itself shall be delivered from the servitude of corruption, into the liberty of the glory of the children of God.
22 For we know that every creature groaneth, and is in labour even till now.
23 And not only it, but ourselves also, who have the first-fruits of the spirit, even we ourselves groan within ourselves, waiting for the adoption of the sons of God, the redemption of our body.
24 For we are saved by hope.  But hope that is seen, is not hope: For what a man seeth, why doth he hope for?
25 But if we hope for that which we see not: we wait for it with patience.
26 Likewise the spirit also helpeth our infirmity: for we know not what we should pray for as we ought: but the Spirit himself asketh for us with unspeakable groanings.
27 And he that searcheth the hearts, knoweth what the Spirit desireth: because he asketh for the saints according to God.
28 And we know that to them that love God, all things work together unto good, to such as according to purpose, are called to be saints.
29 For whom he foreknew, he also predestinated to be made conformable to the image of his Son: that he might be the first-born amongst many brethren.
30 And whom he predestinated, them he also called: and whom he called, them he also justified: and whom he justified, them he also glorified.
31 What shall we then say to these things?  If God be for us, who is against us?
32 *He that spared not even his own Son, but delivered him up for us all: how hath he not also, with him, given us all things?
33 Who shall lay any thing to the charge of the elect of God?  God that justifieth,
34 Who is he that shall condemn?  Christ Jesus who died, yea, who rose also again, who is at the right hand of God, who also maketh intercession for us.
35 Who then shall separate us from the love of Christ? shall tribulation? or distress? or famine? or nakedness? or danger? or persecution? or the sword?
36 (As it is written: *For thy sake we are put to death, all the day long: we are accounted as sheep for the slaughter.)
37 But in all these things we overcome, because of him that hath loved us.
38 For I am sure that neither death, nor life, nor Angels, nor principalities, nor powers, nor things present, nor things to come, nor might,
39 Nor height, nor depth, nor any other creature shall be able to separate us from the love of God, which is in Christ Jesus, our Lord.
3:  Acts xv. 10.; Heb. ix. 15.
11:  Acts iii. 15. and iv. 18. and v. 30. and xiii. 38.; Supra iv. 24.; 1 Cor. vi. 14.
15:  2 Tim. i. 7. --- ** Gal. iv. 5.
32:  Gen. xxii. 12.
36:  Ps. xliii. 23.


The apostle's concern for the Jews.  God's election is free, and not confined to their nation.

1 I speak the truth in Christ, I lie not, my conscience bearing me witness in the Holy Ghost:
2 That I have great sadness, and continual sorrow in my heart.
3 *For I wished myself to be an anathema from Christ, for my brethren, who are my kinsmen according to the flesh,
4 Who are Israelites, to whom belongeth the adoption of sons, and the glory, and the covenant, and the giving of the law, and the worship, and the promises:
5 Whose are the fathers, and of whom is Christ according to the flesh, who is over all things, God blessed for ever.  Amen.
6 Not as though the word of God hath failed.  For all are not Israelites that are of Israel:
7 Neither are all they, who are the seed of Abraham, children: *but in Isaac shall thy seed be called:
8 That is to say, not they who are the children of the flesh, are the children of God: but they *that are the children of the promise, are counted for the seed.
9 For this is the word of promise: *According to this time will I come: and Sara shall have a son.
10 And not only she: *but when Rebecca also had conceived at once, by Isaac, our father.
11 For when the children were not yet born, nor had done any good or evil, (that the purpose of God according to election might stand)
12 Not of works, but of him that calleth, it was said to her:
13 *That the elder shall serve the younger, as it is written: Jacob I have loved, but Esau I have hated.
14 What shall we say then?  Is there injustice with God?  God forbid.
15 For he saith to Moses: *I will have mercy on whom I will have mercy: and I will shew mercy to whom I will shew mercy.
16 So then it is not of him that willeth, nor of him that runneth, but of God that sheweth mercy.
17 For the Scripture saith to Pharao: *To this purpose have I raised thee up, that I may shew my power in thee: and that my name may be declared throughout all the earth.
18 Therefore he hath mercy on whom he will, and whom he will he hardeneth.
19 Thou wilt say, therefore, to me: Why doth he then find fault?  For who resisteth his will?
20 O man, who art thou that repliest against God?  *Shall the thing formed say to him that formed it: Why hast thou made me thus?
21 Or hath not the potter power over the clay, of the same lump, to make one vessel unto honour, and another unto dishonour?
22 What if God, willing to shew his wrath, and to make his power known, endured with much patience vessels of wrath, fitted for destruction,
23 That he might shew the riches of his glory upon the vessels of mercy, which he hath prepared unto glory.
24 Even us, whom also he hath called, not of the Jews only, but also of the Gentiles,
25 As he saith in Osee: *I will call the my people, that were not my people: and her beloved, that was not beloved: and her, that had not obtained mercy, one that hath obtained mercy.
26 *And it shall be, in the place where it was said to them: you are not my people: there they shall be called the children of the living God.
27 And Isaias crieth out concerning Israel: *If the number of the children of Israel be as the sand of the sea, a remnant shall be saved.
28 For he shall finish his word, and cut it short in justice: because a short word shall the Lord make upon the earth.
29 And as Isaias foretold:* unless the Lord of sabaoth had left us a seed, we had been made as Sodom, and we had been like unto Gomorrha.
30 What then shall we say?  That the Gentiles, who followed not after justice, have attained to justice: even the justice that is of faith.
31 But Israel, by following after the law of justice, is not come to the law of justice.
32 Why so?  Because they sought it not by faith, but as it were of works: for they stumbled at the stumbling-stone;
33 As it is written: *Behold I lay in Sion a stumbling-stone, and a rock of scandal: and whosoever believeth in him, shall not be confounded.
3:  Acts ix. 2.; 1 Cor. xv. 9.
7:  Gen. xxi. 12.
8:  Gal. iv. 28.
9:  Gen. xviii. 10.
10:  Gen. xxv. 24.
13:  Gen. xxv. 23.; Mal. i. 2.
15:  Exod. xxxiii. 19.
17:  Exod. ix. 16.
20:  Wisd. xv. 7.; Isai. xlv. 9.; Jer. xviii. 6.
25:  Osee ii. 24.; 1 Pet. ii. 10.
26:  Osee i. 10.
27:  Isai. x. 22.
29:  Isai. i. 9.
33:  Isai. viii. 14. and xxviii. 16.; 1 Pet. ii. 7.


The end of the law is faith in Christ: which the Jews refusing to submit to, cannot be justified.

1 Brethren, the will of my heart, indeed, and my prayer to God, is for them unto salvation.
2 For I bear them witness, that they have a zeal of God, but not according to knowledge.
3 For they, not knowing the justice of God, and seeking to establish their own, have not submitted themselves to the righteousness of God.
4 For the end of the law is Christ, unto justice to every one that believeth.
5 For Moses wrote, that the justice which is of the law, *the man that shall do it, shall live by it.
6 But the justice which is of faith, speaketh thus: *Say not in thine heart: Who shall ascend into heaven? that is, to bring Christ down:
7 Or who shall descend into the deep? that is, to bring up Christ again from the dead.
8 But what saith the Scripture?  *The word is near thee, even in thy mouth, and in thy heart: that is the word of faith, which we preach:
9 That if thou confess with thy mouth the Lord Jesus, and believe in thy heart that God hath raised him up from the dead, thou shalt be saved.
10 For, with the heart, we believe unto justice: but, with the mouth, confession is made unto salvation.
11 For the Scripture saith: *Whosoever believeth in him, shall not be confounded.
12 For there is no distinction of the Jew and the Greek; for the same is Lord over all, rich to all that call upon him.
13 *For whosoever shall call upon the name of the Lord shall be saved.
14 How then shall they call on him, in whom they have not believed?  Or how shall they believe in him, of whom they have not heard?  And how shall they hear, without a preacher?
15 And how can they preach, unless they be sent? as it is written: *How beautiful are the feet of them that preach the gospel of peace, of them that bring glad tidings of good things?
16 But all do not obey the gospel.  For Isaias saith: *Lord, who hath believed our report?
17 Faith then cometh by hearing: and hearing by the word of Christ.
18 But I say: Have they not heard?*  Yes, verily, their sound went forth over all the earth, and their words unto the ends of the whole world.
19 But I say: Hath not Israel known?  First Moses saith: *I will provoke you to jealousy by that which is not a nation: by a foolish nation I will anger you.
20 But Isaias is bold, and saith: *I was found by them that did not seek me: I appeared openly to them that asked not after me.
21 But to Israel he saith: *All the day long I have spread forth my hands to a people, that believeth not, and contradicteth me.
5:  Lev. xviii. 5.; Ezec. xx. 11.
6:  Deut. xxx. 12.
8:  Deut. xxx. 14.
11:  Isai. xxviii. 16.
13:  Joel ii. 32.; Acts ii. 21.
15:  Isai. lii. 7.; Nahum i. 15.
16:  Isai. liii. 1.; John xii. 38.
18:  Ps. xviii. 5.
19:  Deut. xxxii. 21.
20:  Isai. lxv. 1.
21:  Isai. lxv. 2.


God hath not cast off all Israel.  The Gentiles must not be proud; but stand in faith, and fear.

1 I say then: Hath God cast away his people?  God forbid.  For I also am an Israelite, of the seed of Abraham, of the tribe of Benjamin.
2 God hath not cast away his people, which he foreknew.  Know you not what the Scripture saith of Elias; how he calleth on God against Israel?
3 *Lord, they have slain thy prophets, they have dug down thy altars: and I am left alone, and they seek my life.
4 But what saith the divine answer to him?  *I have reserved to myself seven thousand men, who have not bowed their knees to Baal.
5 Even so then at this present time also, there is a remnant saved, according to the election of grace.
6 And if by grace, it it not now by works: otherwise grace is no more grace.
7 What then? that which Israel sought, he hath not obtained: but the election hath obtained it, and the rest have been blinded:
8 As it is written: *God hath given them the spirit of insensibility: eyes, that they should not see, and ears, that they should not hear, until this present day.
9 And David saith: *Let their table be made a snare, and a trap, and a stumbling-block, and a recompense to them.
10 Let their eyes be darkened, that they may not see: and bow down their back always.
11 I say then, have they so stumbled, that they should fall?  God forbid.  But by their offence, salvation is come to the Gentiles, that they may be emulous of them.
12 Now if the offence of them be the riches of the world, and the diminishing of them, the riches of the Gentiles: how much more the fulness of them?
13 For I say to you, Gentiles: *As long, indeed, as I am the apostle of the Gentiles, I will honour my ministry,
14 If by any means I may provoke to emulation them who are my flesh, and may save some of them.
15 For if the loss of them be the reconciliation of the world: what shall the receiving of them be, but life from the dead?
16 For if the first-fruit be holy, so is the mass also: and if the root be holy, so are the branches.
17 And if some of the branches be broken, and thou being a wild olive-tree, art ingrafted in them, and art made partaker of the root and of the fatness of the olive-tree,
18 Boast not against the branches.  But if thou boast: thou bearest not the root, but the root thee.
19 Thou wilt say then: the branches were broken off that I might be grafted in.
20 Well: because of unbelief they were broken off.  But thou standest by faith: be not high-minded, but fear.
21 For if God hath not spared the natural branches: he may not perhaps spare thee also.
22 See, therefore, the goodness, and the severity of God: towards them, indeed, that are fallen, the severity: but towards thee, the goodness of God, if thou continue in goodness, otherwise thou also shalt be cut off.
23 And they also, if they abide not still in unbelief, shall be ingrafted: for God is able to ingraft them again.
24 For if thou wert cut out of the wild olive-tree, which is natural to thee, and, contrary to nature, wert grafted into the good olive-tree: how much more shall they, that are the natural branches, be grafted into their own olive-tree?
25 For I would not have you ignorant, brethren, of this mystery, *(lest you should be wise in your own conceits) that blindness in part has happened in Israel, until the fulness of the Gentiles should come in,
26 And so all Israel should be saved, as it is written: *There shall come out of Sion he that shall deliver, and shall turn away impiety from Jacob.
27 And this is to them my covenant: when I shall take away their sins.
28 According to the gospel, indeed, they are enemies for your sake: but according to election, they are most dear for the sake of the fathers.
29 For the gifts and the calling of God are without repentance.
30 For as you also in times past did not believe God, but now have obtained mercy, through their unbelief:
31 So these also now have not believed for your mercy, that they also may obtain mercy.
32 For God hath concluded all in unbelief, that he may have mercy on all.
33 O the depth of the riches, of the wisdom, and of the knowledge of God!  How incomprehensible are his judgments, and how unsearchable his ways!
34 *For who hath known the mind of the Lord?  Or who hath been his counsellor?
35 Or who hath first given to him, and recompense shall be made him?
36 For of him, and by him, and in him, are all things: to him be glory for ever.  Amen.
3:  3 Kings xix. 10.
4:  3 Kings xix. 18.
8:  Isai. vi. 9. and x. 29.[xxix. 10.?]; Matt. xiii. 14.; John xii. 40.; Acts xxviii. 26.
9:  Ps. lxviii. 23.
13:  Acts ix. 2. and 15.; Gal. ii. 7.
25:  Prov. iii. 7.; Isai. v. 21.
26:  Isai. lix. 20.
34:  Wisd. ix. 13.; Isai. xl. 13.; 1 Cor. ii. 16.


Lessons of Christian virtues.

1 I beseech you, therefore, brethren, by the mercy of God, *that you present your bodies a living sacrifice, holy, pleasing to God, your reasonable service.
2 And be not conformed to this world: but be reformed in the newness of your mind: *that you may prove what is the good, and the acceptable, and the perfect will of God.
3 For I say, through the grace that is given me, to all that are among you, not to be more wise than it behoveth to be wise, but to be wise unto sobriety: *and according as God hath divided to every one the measure of faith.
4 For as in one body we have many members, but all the members have not the same office:
5 So we, being many, are one body in Christ, and every one, members one of another.
6 And having gifts different, according to the grace that is given us, whether prophecy, according to the proportion of faith,
7 Or ministry, in ministering: or he that teacheth, in doctrine,
8 He that exhorteth in exhorting; he that giveth with simplicity; he that ruleth with solicitude, he that sheweth mercy with cheerfulness.
9 Love without dissimulation.  *Hating that which is evil, adhering to that which is good:
10 *Loving one another with brotherly love; in honour preventing one another:
11 In solicitude not slothful: in spirit fervent: serving the Lord:
12 Rejoicing in hope: patient in tribulation: instant in prayer:
13 Communicating to the necessities of the saints: *pursuing hospitality.
14 Bless them that persecute you: bless, and curse not.
15 Rejoice with them that rejoice, weep with them that weep:
16 Being of one mind one towards another: not high-minded: but condescending to the humble.  Be not wise in your own conceits:
17 Rendering to no man evil for evil: *providing things good, not only in the sight of God, but also in the sight of all men.
18 *If it be possible, as much as is in you, have peace with all men.
19 *Revenge not yourselves, my dearly beloved: but give place to wrath, for it is written: **Revenge is mine, I will repay, saith the Lord.
20 *But if thy enemy be hungry, give him to eat: if he thirst, give him to drink: for, doing this, thou shalt heap coals of fire on his head.
21 *Be not overcome by evil, but overcome evil by good.
1:  Phil. iv. 18.
2:  Ephes. v. 17.; 1 Thes. iv. 3.
3:  1 Cor. xii. 11.; Ephes. iv. 7.
9:  Amos v. 15.
10:  Ephes. iv. 3.; 1 Pet. ii. 17.
13:  Heb. xiii. 2.; 1 Pet. iv. 9.
17:  2 Cor. viii. 21.
18:  Heb. xii. 14.
19:  Eccli. xxviii. 1. and ii. 3. --- ** Matt. 5. 39.[v. 39.?]
20:  Deut. xxxii. 35.; Heb. 10. 30.[x. 30.?]
21:  Prov. xxv. 21.


Lessons of obedience to superiors, and mutual charity.

1 Let *every soul be subject to higher powers: for there is no power but from God: and those that are, are ordained of God.
2 Therefore he that resisteth the power, resisteth the ordinance of God, and they that resist, purchase to themselves damnation.
3 For rulers are not a terror to the good work, but to the evil.  Wilt thou then not be afraid of the power?  Do that which is good: and thou shalt have praise from the same.
4 For he is the minister of God to thee for good.  But if thou do that which is evil, fear: for he beareth not the sword in vain.  For he is the minister of God: and avenger to execute wrath upon him that doth evil.
5 Wherefore be subject of necessity, not only for wrath, but also for conscience-sake.
6 For therefore also you pay tribute: for they are the ministers of God, serving unto this purpose.
7 *Render, therefore, to all their dues: tribute, to whom tribute is due: custom, to whom custom: fear, to whom fear: honour, to whom honour.
8 Owe no man any thing, but to love one another: for he that loveth his neighbour, hath fulfilled the law.
9 *For thou shalt not commit adultery: Thou shalt not kill: Thou shalt not steal: Thou shalt not bear false witness: Thou shalt not covet: and if there be any other commandment, it is comprised in this word: **Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself.
10 The love of our neighbour worketh no evil.  Love, therefore, is the fulfilling of the law.
11 And that knowing the time: that it is now the hour for us to rise from sleep: for now our salvation is nearer than when we believed.
12 The night is passed, and the day is at hand.  Let us, therefore, cast off the works of darkness, and put on the armour of light.
13 Let us walk honestly as in the day: *not in rioting and drunkenness, not in chambering and impurities, not in contention and envy:
14 *But put ye on the Lord Jesus Christ, and make not provision for the flesh in its concupiscences.
1:  Wisd. vi. 4.; 1 Pet. ii. 13.
7:  Matt. xxi. 21.
9:  Exod. xx. 14.; Deut. v. 18. --- ** Lev. xix. 18.; Matt. xxii. 39.; Mark xii. 31.; Gal. v. 14.; James ii. 8.
13:  Luke xxi. 34.
14:  Gal. v. 16.; 1 Pet. ii. 11.


The strong must bear with the weak.  Cautions against judging; and giving scandal.

1 Now him, that is weak in faith, take unto you; not in disputes about thoughts.
2 For one believeth that he may eat all things: but he that is weak, let him eat herbs.
3 Let not him that eateth, despise him that eateth not; and he that eateth not, let him not judge him that eateth: For God hath taken him to him.
4 *Who art thou that judgest another man's servant?  To his own master he standeth, or falleth: and he shall stand: for God is able to make him stand.
5 For one judgeth between day and day: and another judgeth every day: let every man abound in his own sense.
6 He that regardeth the day, regardeth it unto the Lord: and he that eateth, eateth to the Lord: for he giveth thanks to God.  And he that eateth not, to the Lord he eateth not, and giveth thanks to God.
7 For none of us liveth to himself: and no man dieth to himself.
8 For whether we live, we live to the Lord: or whether we die, we die to the Lord.  Therefore, whether we live, or whether we die, we are the Lord's.
9 For to this end Christ died, and rose again: that he might be Lord both of the dead and of the living.
10 But why dost thou judge thy brother? or why dost thou despise thy brother?  *For we shall all stand before the judgment-seat of Christ.
11 For it is written: *As I live, saith the Lord, every knee shall bow to me: and every tongue shall confess to God.
12 Therefore every one of us shall render account for himself to God.
13 Let us not, therefore, judge one another any more: but judge this rather, that you put not a stumbling-block, or a scandal in your brother's way.
14 I know, and am confident, in the Lord Jesus, that nothing is unclean of itself; but to him that thinketh any thing to be unclean, to him it is unclean.
15 For if, because of thy meat, thy brother be grieved: thou walkest not now according to charity.  *Destroy not him with thy meat, for whom Christ died.
16 Let not then our good be evil spoken of.
17 For the kingdom of God is not meat and drink: but justice, and peace, and joy in the Holy Ghost.
18 For he, that in this serveth Christ, pleaseth God, and is approved of men.
19 Therefore let us follow after the things that are of peace: and keep the things that are of edification one towards another.
20 Destroy not the work of God for meat.  *All things indeed are clean: but it is evil for that man who eateth through offence.
21 *It is good not to eat flesh, and not to drink wine, nor any thing whereby thy brother is offended, or scandalized, or made weak.
22 Hast thou faith?  Have it to thyself before God.  Happy is he that condemneth not himself in that which he alloweth.
23 But he, that discerneth, if he eat, is condemned: because not of faith.  For all that is not of faith, is sin.
4:  Jam. iv. 13.
10:  2 Cor. v. 10.
11:  Isai. xiv. 24.; Philip. ii. 10.
15:  1 Cor. viii. 11.
20:  Titus i. 15.
21:  1 Cor. viii. 13.


He exhorts them to be all of one mind: and promises to come and see them.

1 Now we that are stronger, ought to bear the infirmities of the weak, and not to please ourselves.
2 Let every one of you please his neighbour unto good, to edification.
3 For Christ did not please himself, but as it is written: *The reproaches of them that reproached thee, fell upon me.
4 For what things soever were written, were written for our instruction: that, through patience, and the comfort of the Scriptures, we might have hope.
5 Now the God of patience, and of comfort, *grant you to be of one mind one towards another, according to Jesus Christ:
6 That with one mind, and with one mouth, you may glorify God and the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ.
7 Wherefore receive one another, as Christ also hath received you to the honour of God.
8 For I say that Christ Jesus was minister of the circumcision for the truth of God, to confirm the promises made to the fathers.
9 But that the Gentiles are to glorify God for his mercy, as it is written: *Therefore will I confess to thee, O Lord, among the Gentiles, and will sing to thy name.
10 And again he saith: Rejoice, ye Gentiles, with his people.
11 And again: *Praise the Lord, all ye Gentiles: and magnify him, all ye people.
12 And again Isaias saith: *There shall be a root of Jesse: and he that shall rise up to rule the Gentiles, in him the Gentiles shall hope.
13 Now the God of hope fill you with all joy and peace in believing: that you may abound in hope, and in the power of the Holy Ghost.
14 And I myself also, my brethren, am assured of you, that you also are full of love, replenished with all knowledge, so that you are able to admonish one another.
15 But I have written to you, brethren, more boldly in some sort, as putting you in mind: because of the grace which is given me from God,
16 That I should be the minister of Christ Jesus among the Gentiles; sanctifying the gospel of God, that the oblation of the Gentiles may be made acceptable and sanctified in the Holy Ghost.
17 I have, therefore, glory in Christ Jesus towards God.
18 For I dare not to speak of any of those things which Christ worketh not by me, for the obedience of the Gentiles, by word and by deed,
19 By the virtue of signs and wonders, in the power of the Holy Ghost; so that from Jerusalem round about as far as unto Illyricum, I have spread the gospel of Christ.
20 And I have so preached this gospel, not where Christ was named, lest I should build upon another man's foundation; but as it is written:.
21 *They to whom he was not spoken of, shall see, and they that have not heard, shall understand.
22 For which cause also I was hindered very much from coming to you, and have been kept away till now.
23 But now having no more place in these countries, and having a great desire these many years past to come to you,
24 When I shall begin to take my journey into Spain, I hope that as I pass, I shall see you, and be brought on my way thither by you, if first, in part, I shall have enjoyed you.
25 But now I shall go to Jerusalem, to minister to the saints.
26 For it hath pleased them of Macedonia, and Achaia, to make come contribution for the poor saints who are in Jerusalem.
27 For it hath pleased them: and they are their debtors.  *For if the Gentiles have been made partakers of their spiritual things, they ought also in carnal things to minister to them.
28 When, therefore, I shall have accomplished this, and consigned to them this fruit, I will come by you into Spain.
29 And I know, that when I come to you, I shall come in the abundance of the blessing of the gospel of Christ.
30 I beseech you, therefore, brethren, through our Lord Jesus Christ, and by the charity of the Holy Ghost, that you assist me in your prayers for me to God.
31 That I may be delivered from the unbelievers that are in Judea, and that the oblation of my service may be acceptable in Jerusalem to the saints;
32 That I may come to you with joy, by the will of God, and may be refreshed with you.
33 Now the God of peace be with you all.  Amen.
3:  Ps. lxviii. 10.
5:  1 Cor. i. 10.
9:  2 Kings xxii. 50.; Ps. xvii. 5.
11:  Ps. cxvi. 1.
12:  Isai. xi. 10.
21:  Isai. lii. 15.
27:  1 Cor. ix. 11.


He concludes with salutations, bidding them beware of all that should oppose the doctrine they had learnt.

1 And I commend to you Phœbe, our sister, who is in the ministry of the church that is in Cenchrea:
2 That you receive her in the Lord as becometh saints: and that you assist her in whatsoever business she shall have need of you.  For she also hath assisted many, and myself also.
3 Salute *Prisca, and Aquila, my helpers in Christ Jesus,
4 (Who have for my life laid down their own necks: to whom not I only give thanks, but also all the churches of the Gentiles)
5 And the church which is in their house.  Salute Epænetus, my beloved, who is the first-fruits of Asia, in Christ.
6 Salute Mary, who hath laboured much among you.
7 Salute Andronicus, and Junias, my kinsmen and fellow-captives: who are of note among the apostles, who also were in Christ before me.
8 Salute Ampliatus, most beloved to me in the Lord.
9 Salute Urbanus, our helper in Christ Jesus, and Stachys, my beloved.
10 Salute Apelles, approved in Christ.
11 Salute them that are of Aristobulus' household.  Salute Herodion, my kinsman.  Salute them that are of Narcissus' household, who are in the Lord.
12 Salute Tryphæna and Tryphosa, who labour in the Lord.  Salute Persis, the dearly beloved, who hath much laboured in the Lord.
13 Salute Rufus, elect in the Lord, and his mother and mine.
14 Salute Asyncritus, Phlegon, Hermas, Patrobas, Hermes, and the brethren that are with them.
15 Salute Philologus, and Julia, Nereus and his sister, and Olympias: and all the saints that are with them.
16 Salute one another with a holy kiss.  All the churches of Christ salute you.
17 Now I beseech you, brethren, to mark them who cause dissensions and offences, contrary to the doctrine which you have learned, and avoid them.
18 For they that are such, serve not Christ, our Lord, but their own belly: and by pleasing speeches, and good words, seduce the hearts of the innocent.
19 For your obedience is published in every place.  I rejoice, therefore, in you.  But I would have you to be wise in good, and simple in evil.
20 And may the God of peace crush Satan under your feet.  The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with you.
21 *Timothy, my fellow-labourer, saluteth you, and Lucius, and Jason, and Sosipater, my kinsmen.
22 I, Tertius, who wrote this epistle, salute you in the Lord.
23 Caius, my host, and the whole church, saluteth you.  Erastus, the treasurer of the city, saluteth you, and Quartus, a brother.
24 The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with you all.  Amen.
25 Now to him that is able to establish you, according to my gospel, and the preaching of Jesus Christ, according to the revelation of the mystery kept secret from eternity,
26 (Which now is made manifest by the Scriptures of the prophets, according to the commandment of the eternal God, for the obedience of faith) known among all nations;
27 To God, the only wise, through Jesus Christ, to whom be honour and glory for ever and ever.  Amen.
3:  Acts xviii. 2. and 26.
21:  Acts xvi. 1.



He reproveth their dissensions about their teachers: the world was to be saved by preaching of the cross, and not by human wisdom or eloquence.

1 Paul, called to be an apostle of Jesus Christ, by the will of God, and Sosthenes a brother,
2 To the church of God that is at Corinth, to them that are sanctified in Christ Jesus, called to be saints, with all that invoke the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, in every place of theirs and ours;
3 Grace to you, and peace from God, our Father, and from the Lord Jesus Christ.
4 I give thanks to my God always for you, for the grace of God, that is given you in Christ Jesus:
5 That in all things you are made rich in him, in all speaking, and in all knowledge:
6 As the testimony of Christ was confirmed in you:
7 So that nothing is wanting to you in any grace, waiting for the manifestation of our Lord Jesus Christ,
8 Who also will confirm you unto the end without crime, in the day of the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ.
9 *God is faithful: by whom you are called unto the fellowship of his Son, Jesus Christ, our Lord.
10 Now I beseech you, brethren, by the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, that you all speak the same thing, and that there be no schisms among you: but that you be perfect in the same mind, and in the same judgment.
11 For it hath been signified unto me, my brethren, of you, by them who are of Chloe, that there are contentions among you.
12 Now this I say, that every one of you saith: I indeed am of Paul: and I am *of Apollo: and I am of Cephas: and I of Christ.
13 Is Christ divided?  Was Paul then crucified for you? or were you baptized in the name of Paul?
14 I give God thanks, that I baptized none of you, *but Crispus and Caius:
15 Lest any should say that you were baptized in my name.
16 And I baptized also the household of Stephanus: besides, I know not whether I baptized any other.
17 For Christ sent me not to baptize, but to preach the gospel: *not in wisdom of speech, lest the cross of Christ should be made void.
18 For the word of the cross, to them indeed that perish, is foolishness; but to them who are saved, that is, to us, *it is the power of God.
19 For it is written: *I will destroy the wisdom of the wise: and the prudence of the prudent I will reject.
20 *Where is the wise?  Where is the scribe?  Where is the disputer of this world?  Hath not God made foolish the wisdom of this world?
21 For seeing that in the wisdom of God the world by wisdom knew not God: it pleased God by the foolishness of preaching to save them that believe.
22 For both the Jews require signs, and the Greeks seek after wisdom:
23 But we preach Christ crucified, to the Jews a stumbling-block, and to the Gentiles, foolishness:
24 But to them that are called, both Jews, and Greeks, Christ the power of God, and the wisdom of God.
25 For the foolishness of God, is wiser than men: and the weakness of God, is stronger than men.
26 For see your vocation, brethren, that not many wise according to the flesh, not many mighty, not many noble:
27 But the foolish things of the world hath God chosen, that he may confound the wise: and the weak things of the world hath God chosen, that he may confound the strong:
28 And the mean things of the world, and the things that are contemptible, hath God chosen, and things that are not, that he might destroy the things that are:
29 That no flesh should glory in his sight.
30 But of him you are in Christ Jesus, who is made to us wisdom from God, *and justice, and sanctification, and redemption:
31 That, as it is written: *He that glorieth, may glory in the Lord.
9:  1 Thess. v. 24.
12:  Acts xviii. 24.
14:  Acts xviii. 8.
17:  2 Pet. i. 16.; Infra ii. 1. and iv. 13.
18:  Rom. i. 16.
19:  Isai. xxix. 14.
20:  Isai. xxxiii. 18.
30:  Jer. xxv. 5.
31:  Jer. ix. 23. and 24.; 2 Cor. x. 17.


His preaching was not in loftiness of words: but in spirit and power.  And the wisdom he taught was not to be understood by the worldly wise, or sensual man, but only by the spiritual man.

1 And I, brethren, when I came to you, *came not in loftiness of speech or of wisdom, declaring to you the testimony of Christ.
2 For I judged not myself to know any thing among you, but Jesus Christ, and him crucified.
3 *And I was with you in weakness, and in fear, and in much trembling:
4 *And my speech, and my preaching was not in the persuasive words of human wisdom, but in shewing of the spirit and power:
5 That your faith might not stand on the wisdom of men, but on the power of God.
6 Howbeit, we speak wisdom among the perfect: yet not the wisdom of this world, neither of the princes of this world, who are destroyed:
7 But we speak the wisdom of God in a mystery, which is hidden, which God predestinated before the world, unto our glory,
8 Which none of the princes of this world knew: for if they had known it, they would never have crucified the Lord of glory.
9 But as it is written: *That eye hath not seen, nor ear heard, neither hath it entered into the heart of man, what things God hath prepared for them that love him:
10 But to us God hath revealed by his Spirit.  For the Spirit searcheth all things, even the profound things of God.
11 For what man knoweth the things of a man, but the spirit of a man that is in him?  So the things also that are of God no man knoweth, but the Spirit of God.
12 Now we have received not the spirit of this world, but the Spirit that is of God, that we may know the things that are given us from God:
13 *Which things also we speak, not in the learned words of human wisdom, but in the doctrine of the Spirit, comparing spiritual things with spiritual.
14 But the sensual man perceiveth not the things that are of the Spirit of God: for it is foolishness to him, and he cannot understand: because it is spiritually examined.
15 But the spiritual man judgeth all things: and he himself is judged of no one.
16 *For who hath known the mind of the Lord, that we may instruct him?  But we have the mind of Christ.
1:  Supra i. 17.
3:  Acts xviii. 3.
4:  2 Pet. i. 16.
9:  Isai. lxiv. 4.
13:  Supra i. 17. and ii. 1. and 4.; 2 Pet. i. 16.
16:  Wisd. ix. 13.; Isai. xl. 13.; Rom. xi. 34.


They must not contend about their teachers, who are but God's ministers, and accountable to him.  Their works shall be tried by fire.

1 And I, brethren, could not speak to you as to spiritual, but as unto carnal.  As to little ones in Christ,
2 I gave you milk to drink, not meat: for you were not able as yet: but neither indeed are you now able: for you are yet carnal.
3 For, whereas, there is among you envying and contention; are you not carnal, and walk according to man?
4 For while one saith, I indeed am of Paul: and another, I am of Apollo: are you not men?  What then is Apollo, and what is Paul?
5 The ministers of him whom you have believed: and to every one as the Lord hath given.
6 I have planted, Apollo watered: but God gave the increase.
7 Therefore neither he that planteth is any thing, nor he that watereth: but God who giveth the increase.
8 Now he who planteth, and he who watereth, are one.  *And every man shall receive his own reward according to his own labour.
9 For we are God's coadjutors: you are God's husbandry; you are God's building.
10 According to the grace of God, that is given to me, as a wise architect, I have laid the foundation: and another buildeth thereon.  But let every man take heed how he buildeth thereupon.
11 For no one can lay another foundation, but that which is laid: which is Christ Jesus.
12 Now if any man build upon this foundation, gold, silver, precious stones, wood, hay, stubble:
13 Every man's work shall be manifest: for the day of the Lord shall declare it, because it shall be revealed in fire: and the fire shall try every man's work, of what sort it is.
14 If any man's work abide, which he hath built thereupon: he shall receive a reward.
15 If any man's work burn, he shall suffer loss: but he himself shall be saved, yet so as by fire.
16 Know you not that you are the temple of God, and that the spirit of God dwelleth in you?
17 But if any man violate the temple of God: him shall God destroy.  *For the temple of God is holy, which you are.
18 Let no man deceive himself: if any man among you seem to be wise in this world, let him become a fool that he may be wise.
19 For the wisdom of this world is foolishness with God.  For it is written: *I will catch the wise in their own craftiness.
20 And again: *The Lord knoweth the thoughts of the wise, that they are vain.
21 Let no man, therefore, glory in men.
22 For all things are yours, whether it be Paul, or Apollo, or Cephas, or the world, or life, or death, or things present, or things to come: for all are yours:
23 And you are Christ's; and Christ is God's.
8:  Psal. lxi. 13.; Matt. xvi. 27.; Rom. ii. 6.; Gal. vi. 5.
17:  Infra vi. 19.; 2 Cor. vi. 16.
19:  Job v. 13.
20:  Ps. xciii. 11.


God's ministers are not to be judged.  He reprehends their boasting of their preachers: and describes the treatment the apostles ever where met with..

1 Let *a man so look upon us as of the ministers of Christ, and the dispensers of the mysteries of God.
2 Here now it is required among the dispensers, that a man be found faithful.
3 But to me, it is a thing of the least account to be judged by you, or by man's judgment: for neither do I judge myself.
4 For I am not conscious to myself of any thing: yet hereby I am not justified: but he that judgeth me is the Lord.
5 Therefore, judge not before the time: until the Lord come, who both will bring to light the hidden things of darkness, and will make manifest the counsels of the hearts: and then shall every man have praise from God.
6 But these things, brethren, I have in a figure transferred to myself and to Apollo, for your sakes: that in us you may learn, that one be not puffed up against the other for another, above that which is written.
7 For who distinguisheth thee?  And what hast thou that thou hast not received?  And if thou hast received, why dost thou glory as if thou hadst not received?
8 Now you are satiated, now you are become rich: you reign without us: and I would to God you did reign, that we also might reign with you.
9 For I think that God hath set forth us apostles the last, as men condemned to death: because we are made a spectacle to the world, and to Angels, and to men.
10 We are fools for Christ's sake, but you are wise in Christ: we are weak, but you are strong; you are honourable, but we without honour.
11 Even unto this hour we both hunger, and thirst, and are naked, and are buffeted, and have no fixed abode;
12 *And we labour, working with our own hands: we are reviled, and we bless: we are persecuted, and we suffer it.
13 We are slandered, and we intreat: we are made as the refuse of this world, the off-scouring of all even till now.
14 I write not these things to confound you: but I admonish you as my dearest children:
15 For if you have ten thousand instructors in Christ, yet not many fathers.  For in Christ Jesus I have begotten you by the gospel:
16 Wherefore, I beseech you, be ye followers of me, as I also am of Christ.
17 For this cause have I sent to you Timothy, who is my dearest son, and faithful in the Lord: who will put you in mind of my ways, which are in Christ Jesus, as I teach every where in every church.
18 Some are so puffed up, as though I would not come to you.
19 But I will come to you shortly, if the Lord will: and I will know, not the speech of them who are puffed up, but the power.
20 For the kingdom of God is not in speech, but in power.
21 What will you? shall I come to you with a rod; or in charity, and in the spirit of meekness?
1:  2 Cor. vi. 4.
12:  Acts xx. 34.; 1 Thess. ii. 9.; 2 Thess. iii. 8.


He excommunicates the incestuous adulterer, and admonishes them to purge out the old leaven.

1 It is heard for certain that there is fornication among you, *and such fornication, as the like is not among the heathens: that some one hath his father's wife.
2 And you are puffed up: and have not rather mourned, that he might be taken away from among you, who hath done this deed.
3 *I indeed absent in body, but present in spirit, have already judged, as though I were present, him that hath so done,
4 In the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, you being gathered together and my spirit, with the power of our Lord Jesus,
5 To deliver such a one to Satan for the destruction of the flesh, that the spirit may be saved in the day of our Lord Jesus Christ.
6 Your glorying is not good.  *Know you not that a little leaven corrupteth the whole mass?
7 Purge out the old leaven, that you may be a new paste, as you are unleavened.  For Christ, our Pasch, is sacrificed.
8 Therefore let us feast, not with the old leaven, nor with the leaven of malice and wickedness, but with the unleavened bread of sincerity and truth.
9 I wrote to you in an epistle, not to keep company with fornicators.
10 I mean not with the fornicators of this world, or with the covetous, or the extortioners, or the servers of idols: otherwise you must needs go out of this world.
11 But now I have written to you, not to keep company: if any man that is called a brother be a fornicator, or covetous, or a server of idols, or a railer, or a drunkard, or an extortioner; with such a one not so much as to eat.
12 For what have I to do to judge them that are without ?  Do not you judge them that are within?
13 For them that are without, God will judge.  Put away the evil one from among yourselves.
1: Lev. xviii. 7. 8. and xx. 11.
3:  Coloss. ii. 5.
6:  Gal. v. 9.


He blames them for going to law before unbelievers.  Of sins that exclude from the kingdom of heaven.  The evil of fornication.

1 Dare any of you, having a matter against another, go to law before the unjust, and not before the saints?
2 Know you not that the saints shall judge this world? And if the world shall be judged by you, are you unworthy to judge the smallest matters?
3 Know you not that we shall judge angels? how much more things of this world?
4 If therefore you have judgments about the things of this world: set them to judge, who are the most despised in the church.
5 I speak to your shame.  Is it so that there is not among you any wise man that is able to judge between his brethren?
6 But brother goeth to law with brother: and that before unbelievers?
7 *Already indeed there is plainly a fault among you, that you have law-suits one with another.  Why do you not rather take the injury? why do you not rather suffer fraud?
8 But you do wrong and defraud: and that to your brethren.
9 Know you not that the unjust shall not possess the kingdom of God?  Be not deceived: neither fornicators, nor idolaters, nor adulterers,
10 Nor the effeminate, nor sodomites, nor thieves, nor the covetous, nor drunkards, nor railers, nor extortioners, shall possess the kingdom of God.
11 And such some of you were: but you are washed, but you are sanctified, but you are justified in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, and in the spirit of our God.
12 All things are lawful to me, but all things are not expedient.  All things are lawful to me, but I will not be brought under the power of any.
13 The meat for the belly, and the belly for the meats: but God shall destroy both it and them: but the body is not for fornication, but for the Lord, and the Lord for the body.
14 Now God hath both raised up the Lord, and will raise us up also by his power.
15 Know you not, that your bodies are the members of Christ? shall I, then, taking the members of Christ, and make them the members of a harlot?  God forbid.
16 Or know you not, that he who adheres to a harlot, is made one body?  *For they shall be (saith he) two in one flesh.
17 But he who adheres to the Lord is one spirit.
18 Fly fornication.  Every sin that a man doth, is without the body: but he that committeth fornication, sinneth against his own body.
19 Or know you not, *that your members are the temple of the Holy Ghost, who is in you, whom you have from God, and you are not your own?
20 *For you are bought with a great price.  Glorify and bear God in your body.
7:  Matt. v. 39.; Luke vi. 29.; Rom. xii. 17.; 1 Thess. iv. 6.
16:  Gen. ii. 24.; Matt. xix. 5.; Mark x. 8.; Eph. v. 31.
19:  Supra iii. 17.; 2 Cor. vi. 16.
20:  Infra vii. 23.; 1 Pet. i. 18.


Lessons relating to marriage and celibacy.  Virginity is preferable to a married state.

1 Now concerning the thing whereof you wrote to me: It is good for a man not to touch a woman:
2 But because of fornication let every man have his own wife, and let every woman have her own husband.
3 *Let the husband render the debt to his wife: and the wife also in like manner to the husband.
4 The wife hath not power of her own body; but the husband.  And in like manner the husband also hath not power of his own body; but the wife.
5 Defraud not one another, unless, perhaps, by consent, for a time, that you may give yourselves to prayer: and return together again, lest Satan tempt you for your incontinency.
6 But I speak this by indulgence, not by commandment.
7 For I would that all men were even as myself: but every one hath his proper gift from God; one after this manner, and another after that.
8 But I say to the unmarried, and to the widows: it is good for them if they so continue, even as I.
9 But if they do not contain themselves, let them marry: for it is better to marry than to burn.
10 But to them that are married, not I but the Lord commandeth, *that the wife depart not from her husband:
11 And if she depart, that she remain unmarried, or be reconciled to her husband.  And let not the husband put away his wife.
12 For to the rest I speak, not the Lord.  If any brother have a wife that believeth not, and she consent to dwell with him; let him not put her away.
13 And if any woman have a husband that believeth not; and he consent to dwell with her; let her not put away her husband.
14 For the unbelieving husband is sanctified by the believing wife; and the unbelieving wife is sanctified by the believing husband: otherwise your children should be unclean; but now they are holy.
15 But if the unbeliever depart, let him depart.  For a brother or sister is not under servitude in such cases: but God hath called us in peace.
16 For how knowest thou, O wife, whether thou shalt save thy husband?  Or how knowest thou, O man, whether thou shalt save thy wife?
17 But as the Lord hath distributed to every one, as God hath called every one, so let him walk: and so I teach in all churches.
18 Is any man called, being circumcised? let him not procure uncircumcision.  Is any man called in uncircumcision? let him not be circumcised.
19 Circumcision is nothing, and uncircumcision is nothing: but the observance of the commandments of God.
20 *Let every man abide in the same calling in which he was called.
21 Art thou called, being a bond-man? care not for it: but if thou mayest be made free, use it rather.
22 For he that is called in the Lord, being a bond-man, is the freeman of the Lord.  Likewise he that is called, being free, is the bond-man of Christ.
23 *You are bought with a price, be not made the bond-slaves of men.
24 Brethren, let every man, wherein he was called, therein abide with God.
25 Now concerning virgins, I have no commandment of the Lord: but I give counsel, as having obtained mercy of the Lord, to be faithful.
26 I think, therefore, that this is good for the present necessity, that it is good for a man so to be.
27 Art thou bound to a wife? seek not to be loosed.  Art thou loosed from a wife? seek not a wife.
28 But if thou take a wife, thou hast not sinned.  And if a virgin marry, she hath not sinned: nevertheless, such shall have tribulation of the flesh.  But I spare you.
29 This, therefore, I say, brethren: the time is short: it remaineth, that they also who have wives, be as if they had none:
30 And they who weep, as though they wept not: and they who rejoice, as if they rejoiced not: and they who buy, as if they possessed not:
31 And they who use this world, as if they used it not: for the figure of this world passeth away.
32 But I would have you to be without solicitude.  He that is without a wife, is solicitous for the things that belong to the Lord, how he may please God.
33 But he that is with a wife, is solicitous for the things of the world, how he may please his wife: and he is divided.
34 And the unmarried woman and the virgin thinketh on the things of the Lord, that she may be holy both in body and in spirit.  But she that is married thinketh on the things of the world, how she may please her husband.
35 And this I speak for your profit: not to cast a snare upon you, but for that which is decent, and which may give you power to attend upon the Lord, without impediment.
36 But if any man think that he seemeth dishonoured with regard to his virgin, for that she is above the age, and it must be so: let him do what he will: he sinneth not, if she marry.
37 For he that hath determined being steadfast in his heart, having no necessity, but having power of his own will; and hath judged this in his heart, to keep his virgin, doth well.
38 Therefore, both he that giveth his virgin in marriage, doth well: and he that giveth her not, doth better.
39 *A woman is bound by the law as long as her husband liveth: but if her husband die, she is at liberty: let her marry whom she will: only in the Lord:
40 But more blessed shall she be, if she so remain, according to my counsel: and I think that I also have the spirit of God.
3:  1 Pet. iii. 7.
10:  Matt. v. 32. and xix. 9.; Mark x. 9.; Luke xvi. 18.
20:  Ephes. iv. 1.
23:  Supra vi. 20.; 1 Pet. i. 18.
39:  Rom. vii. 2.


Though an idol be nothing, yet things offered up to idols are not to be eaten, for fear of scandal.

1 Now concerning those things that are sacrificed to idols, we know that we all have knowledge.  Knowledge puffeth up; but charity edifieth.
2 And if any man think that he knoweth any thing, he hath not yet known, as he ought to know.
3 But if any man love God, the same is known by him.
4 But as for the meats that are offered in sacrifice to idols, we know that an idol is nothing in the world, and that there is no God but one.
5 For although there be that are called gods, either in heaven or on earth (for there are many gods, and many lords);
6 Yet to us there is but one God, the Father; of whom are all things, and we unto him: and one Lord Jesus Christ: by whom are all things, and we by him.
7 But the knowledge is not in all.  For some until this present with a conscience of the idol, eat as a thing sacrificed to an idol: and their conscience, being weak, is defiled.
8 But meat doth not commend us to God.  For neither, if we eat, shall we have the more: nor, if we eat not, shall we have the less.
9 But take heed, lest perhaps this your liberty become a stumbling-block to the weak.
10 For if a man see him that hath knowledge, sit at meat in the idol's temple; shall not his conscience, being weak, be emboldened to eat those things which are sacrificed to idols ?
11 *And through thy knowledge shall the weak brother perish, for whom Christ died?
12 Now when you sin thus against the brethren, and wound their weak conscience, you sin against Christ.
13 *Wherefore, if meat scandalize my brother, I will never eat flesh, lest I should scandalize my brother.
11:  Rom. xiv. 15.
13:  Rom. xiv. 21.


The apostle did not make use of his power, of being maintained at the charges of those to whom he preached, that he might give no hindrance to the gospel. Of running in the race, and striving for the mastery.

1 Am not I free?  Am not I an apostle?  Have not I seen Christ Jesus, our Lord?  Are not you my work in the Lord?
2 And if I be not an apostle to others, but yet to you I am.  For you are the seal of my apostleship in the Lord.
3 My defence with them that examine me is this.
4 Have we not power to eat and to drink?
5 Have we not power to bring about a woman, a sister, as well as the rest of the apostles, and the brethren of the Lord, and Cephas?
6 Or I only and Barnabas, have we not power to do this?
7 Who serveth as a soldier at any time, at his own charges?  Who planteth a vineyard, and eateth not of the fruit thereof?  Who feedeth the flock, and eateth not of the milk of the flock?
8 Speak I these things according to man?  Or doth not the law also say these things?
9 For it is written in the law of Moses, *Thou shalt not muzzle the mouth of the ox that treadeth out the corn.  Doth God take care for oxen?
10 Or doth he say this indeed for our sakes?  For these things are written for our sakes: that he that ploweth should plow in hope: and he that thrasheth, in hope to receive fruit.
11 *If we have sown unto you spiritual things, is it a great matter if we reap your carnal things?
12 If others be partakers of this power over you: why not we rather?  Nevertheless, we have not used this power: but we bear all things, lest we should give any hindrance to the gospel of Christ.
13 *Know you not, that they who work in the holy place, eat the things that are of the holy place: and they who serve the altar, partake with the altar?
14 So also the Lord ordained, that they who preach the gospel, should live by the gospel.
15 But I have used none of these things.  Neither have I written these things, that they should be so done to me: for it is good for me to die, rather than that any one should make void my glory.
16 For if I preach the gospel, it is no glory to me: for a necessity lieth upon me: for wo is unto me, if I preach not the gospel.
17 For if I do this thing willingly, I have a reward: but if against my will, a dispensation is committed to me.
18 What is my reward then?  That preaching the gospel, I may deliver the gospel without charge, that I abuse not my power in the gospel.
19 For whereas I was free as to all, I made myself the servant of all: that I might gain the more.
20 And I became to the Jews as a Jew, that I might gain the Jews.
21 To them that are under the law, as if I were under the law, (whereas I myself was not under the law) that I might gain them that were under the law.  To them that were without the law, as if I were without the law, (whereas I was not without the law of God, but was in the law of Christ) that I might gain them that were without the law.
22 To the weak I became weak, that I might gain the weak.  I became all things to all men, that I might save all.
23 And I do all things for the gospel's sake: that I may be made partaker thereof.
24 Know you not that they who run in the race, all run indeed, but one receiveth the prize?  So run that you may obtain.
25 And every one that striveth for the mastery refraineth himself from all things: and they indeed that they may receive a corruptible crown: but we an incorruptible one.
26 I, therefore, so run, not as at an uncertainty: I so fight, not as one beating the air:
27 But I chastise my body, and bring it into subjection: lest, perhaps, when I have preached to others, I myself should become reprobate.
9:  Deut. xxv. 4.; 1 Tim. v. 18.
11:  Rom. xv. 27.
13:  Deut. xviii. 1.


By the example of the Israelites he shews that we are not to build too much upon favours received; but avoid their sins; and fly from the service of idols, and from things offered to devils.

1 For I would not have you ignorant, brethren, that our fathers were all *under the cloud, and all passed through the **sea:
2 And all in Moses were baptized, in the cloud, and in the sea:
3 *And they all eat the same spiritual food:
4 *And all drank the same spiritual drink: (and they drank of the spiritual rock that followed them, and the rock was Christ.)
5 But with most of them God was not well pleased: *for they were overthrown in the desert.
6 Now these things were done in a figure of us, that we should not covet evil things, *as they also coveted.
7 Neither become ye idolaters, as some of them: as it is written: *The people sat down to eat and drink, and rose up to play.
8 Neither let us commit fornication, *as some of them committed fornication, and there fell in one day three and twenty thousand.
9 Neither let us tempt Christ, as some of them tempted, and perished by the serpents.
10 *Neither do you murmur, as some of them murmured, and were destroyed by the destroyer.
11 Now all these things happened to them in figure: and they are written for our correction, upon whom the ends of the world are come.
12 Wherefore let him that thinketh himself to stand, take heed lest he fall.
13 Let no temptation take hold on you, but such as is human: and God is faithful, who will not suffer you to be tempted above that which you are able: but will make also with temptation issue, that you may be able to bear it.
14 Wherefore, my dearly beloved, flee from the service of idols.
15 I speak as to wise men: judge ye yourselves what I say.
16 The chalice of benediction which we bless, is it not the communion of the blood of Christ?  And the bread which we break, is it not the partaking of the body of the Lord?
17 For we being many, are one bread, one body, all who partake of one bread.
18 Behold Israel, according to the flesh; are not they, who eat of the sacrifices, partakers of the altar?
19 What then?  Do I say, that what is offered in sacrifice to idols, is any thing?  Or that the idol is any thing?
20 But the things which the heathens sacrifice, they sacrifice to devils, and not to God.  And I would not that you should be made partakers with devils: you cannot drink the chalice of the Lord, and the chalice of devils:
21 You cannot be partakers of the table of the Lord, and of the table of devils.
22 Do we provoke the Lord to jealousy?  Are we stronger than he?  *All things are lawful for me, but all things are not expedient.
23 All things are lawful for me, but all things do not edify.
24 Let no man seek his own, but that which is another's.
25 Whatsoever is sold in the shambles, eat: asking no question, for conscience sake.
26 *The earth is the Lord's, and the fulness thereof.
27 If any of the unbelievers invite you, and you be willing to go; eat of any thing that is set before you, asking no question, for conscience sake.
28 But if any man say: This hath been sacrificed to idols: do not eat of it for his sake that told it, and for conscience sake.
29 Conscience, I say, not thy own, but the other's.  For why is my liberty judged by another man's conscience?
30 If I partake with thanksgiving, why am I evil spoken of for that for which I give thanks?
31 *Therefore, whether you eat or drink, or whatsoever else you do; do all things for the glory of God.
32 Give no offence to the Jews, nor to the Gentiles, nor to the church of God:
33 As I also please all men in all things, not seeking that which is profitable to myself, but to many; that they may be saved.
1:  Exod. xiii. 21.; Num. ix. 21. --- ** Exod. xiv. 22.
3:  Exod. xvi. 15.
4:  Exod. xvii .6.; Num. xx. 11.
5:  Num. xxvi. 64. and 65.
6:  Ps. cv. 14.
7:  Exod. xxxii. 6.
8:  Num. xxi. 5. and 6.
10:  Num. xi. 1. and xiv. 1.
22:  Supra vi. 12.
26:  Ps. xxiii. 1.; Eccli. xvii. 31.
31:  Coloss. iii. 17.


Women must have a covering over their heads. He blameth the abuses of their charity feasts; and upon that occasion, treats of the blessed sacrament.

1 Be ye followers of me, as I also am of Christ.
2 Now I praise you, brethren, that in all things you are mindful of me: and keep my ordinances as I delivered them to you.
3 But I would have you know *that the head of every man is Christ: and the head of the woman is the man: and the head of Christ, is God.
4 Every man praying or prophesying with his head covered, disgraceth his head.
5 But every woman praying or prophesying with her head not covered, disgraceth her head: for it is all one as if she were shaven.
6 For if a woman be not covered, let her be shorn.  But if it be a shame to a woman to be shorn or shaven, let her cover her head.
7 The man, indeed, ought not to cover his head: because he is the *image and glory of God; but the woman is the glory of the man.
8 For the man is not of the woman, but the woman of the man.
9 *For the man was not created for the woman, but the woman for the man.
10 Therefore ought the woman to have a power over her head, because of the Angels.
11 But yet neither is the man without the woman, nor the woman without the man, in the Lord.
12 For as the woman is of the man, so also is the man by the woman: but all things of God.
13 Judge you yourselves: doth it become a woman, to pray to God uncovered?
14 Doth not even nature itself teach you, that a man, indeed, if he nourish his hair, it is a shame to him:
15 But if a woman nourish her hair, it is a glory to her; for her hair is given to her for a covering.
16 But if any man seem to be contentious, we have no such custom, nor the church of God.
17 Now this I ordain: not praising you, that you come together not for the better, but for the worse.
18 For first of all I hear, that when you come together in the church, there are divisions among you, and in part I believe it.
19 For there must be also heresies: that they also, who are reproved, may be made manifest among you.
20 When you come together therefore into one place, it is not now to eat the Lord's supper.
21 For every one taketh before his own supper to eat.  And one indeed is hungry, and another is drunk.
22 What, have you not houses to eat and to drink in?  Or despise ye the church of God, and put them to shame that have not?  What shall I say to you?  Do I praise you?  In this I praise you not.
23 For I have received of the Lord that which also I delivered unto you, that the Lord Jesus, the night in which he was betrayed, took bread,
24 And giving thanks, broke, and said: *Take ye, and eat: this is my body, which shall be delivered for you: do this for the commemoration of me.
25 In like manner also the chalice, after he had supped, saying: This chalice is the new testament in my blood: this do ye, as often as you shall drink it for the commemoration of me.
26 For as often as you shall eat this bread, and drink the chalice, you shall shew the death of the Lord until he come.
27 *Wherefore, whosoever shall eat this bread, or drink the chalice of the Lord unworthily, shall be guilty of the body and of the blood of the Lord.
28 *But let a man prove himself: and so let him eat of that bread, and drink of the chalice.
29 For he that eateth and drinketh unworthily, eateth and drinketh judgment to himself, not discerning the body of the Lord.
30 Therefore are there many infirm and weak among you, and many sleep.
31 But if we would judge ourselves, we should not be judged.
32 But whilst we are judged, we are chastised by the Lord; that we may not be condemned with this world.
33 Wherefore, my brethren, when you come together to eat, wait for one another.
34 If any man be hungry, let him eat at home: that you come not together unto judgment.  And the rest I will set in order, when I come.
3:  Ephes. v. 23.
7:  Gen. i. 26.
9:  Gen. ii. 23.
24:  Matt. xxvi. 26.; Mark xiv. 22.; Luke xxii. 19.
27:  John vi. 59.
28:  2 Cor. xiii. 5.


Of the diversity of spiritual gifts.  The members of the mystical body, like those of the natural body, must mutually cherish one another.

1 Now concerning spiritual things, brethren, I would not have you to be ignorant.
2 You know that, when you were heathens, you went to dumb idols, according as you were led.
3 Wherefore I give you to understand, *that no man, speaking by the Spirit of God, saith anathema to Jesus.  And no man can say, the Lord Jesus, but by the Holy Ghost.
4 Now there are diversities of graces, but the same Spirit:
5 And there are diversities of ministries, but the same Lord.
6 And there are diversities of operations, but the same God, who worketh all in all.
7 But the manifestation of the Spirit is given to every man unto profit.
8 To one indeed, by the Spirit, is given the word of wisdom: and to another, the word of knowledge, according to the same Spirit.
9 To another, faith in the same Spirit: to another, the grace of healing in one Spirit:
10 To another, the working of miracles: to another, prophecy: to another, the discerning of spirits: to another, divers kinds of tongues: to another, interpretation of speeches.
11 *But all these things one and the same Spirit worketh, dividing to every one according as he will.
12 For as the body is one, and hath many members: and all the members of the body, whereas they are many, yet are one body: so also is Christ.
13 For in one Spirit were we all baptized into one body, whether Jews or Gentiles, whether bond or free: and in one Spirit we have all been made to drink.
14 For the body also is not one member, but many.
15 If the foot should say, because I am not the hand, I am not of the body: is it, therefore, not of the body?
16 And if the ear should say, because I am not the eye, I am not of the body: is it, therefore, not of the body?
17 If the whole body were the eye: where would be the hearing?  If the whole were hearing: where would be the smelling?
18 But now God hath set the members, every one of them in the body, as it hath pleased him.
19 And if they all were one member, where would be the body?
20 But now there are many members, indeed, yet one body.
21 And the eye cannot say to the hand: I need not thy help: nor again the head to the feet: I have no need of you.
22 Yea, much more those that seem to be the more feeble members of the body, are more necessary:
23 And such as we think to be the less honourable members of the body, upon these we bestow more abundant honour: and those that are our uncomely parts, have more abundant comeliness.
24 But our comely parts have no need: but God hath tempered the body together, giving the more abundant honour to that which wanted it,
25 That there might be no schism in the body; but the members might be mutually careful one for another.
26 And if one member suffer any thing, all the members suffer with it: or if one member glory, all the members rejoice with it.
27 Now you are the body of Christ, and members of member.
28 *And God indeed hath set some in the church, first apostles, secondly prophets, thirdly teachers, after that miracles; then the graces of healing, helps, governments, kinds of tongues, interpretations of speeches.
29 Are all apostles?  Are all prophets?  Are all teachers?
30 Are all workers of miracles?  Have all the grace of healing?  Do all speak with tongues?  Do all interpret?
31 But be zealous for the better gifts.  And I shew to you a yet more excellent way.
3:  Mark ix. 38.
11:  Rom. xii. 3. and 6.; Ephes. iv. 7.
28:  Ephes. iv. 11.


Charity is to be preferred before all other gifts.

1 If I speak with the tongues of men, and of Angels, and have not charity, I am become a sounding brass, or a tinkling cymbal.
2 And if I should have prophecy, and should know all mysteries, and all knowledge: and if I should have all faith, so that I could remove mountains, and have not charity, I am nothing.
3 And if I should distribute all my goods to feed the poor, and if I should deliver my body to be burned, and have not charity, it profiteth me nothing.
4 Charity is patient, is kind: charity envieth not, dealeth not perversely, is not puffed up,
5 Is not ambitious, seeketh not her own, is not provoked to anger, thinketh no evil,
6 Rejoiceth not in iniquity, but rejoiceth with the truth:
7 Beareth all things, believeth all things, hopeth all things, endureth all things.
8 Charity never faileth; whether prophecies shall be made void, or tongues shall cease, or knowledge shall be destroyed.
9 For we know in part, and we prophesy in part.
10 But when that which is perfect shall come, that which is in part shall be done away.
11 When I was a child, I spoke as a child, I understood as a child, I thought as a child.  But when I became a man, I put away the things of a child.
12 We see now through a glass in an obscure manner: but then face to face.  Now I know I part: but then I shall know even as I am known.
13 And now there remain, faith, hope, charity, these three: but the greatest of these is charity.


The gift of prophesying is to be preferred before that of speaking strange tongues.

1 Follow after charity, be zealous for spiritual gifts: but rather that you may prophesy.
2 For he that speaketh in a tongue, speaketh not to men, but unto God: for no man heareth.  But by the Spirit he speaketh mysteries.
3 But he that prophesieth, speaketh to men unto edification, and exhortation and comfort.
4 He that speaketh in a tongue, edifieth himself; but he that prophesieth, edifieth the church.
5 And I would have you all to speak with tongues, but rather to prophesy.  For greater is he that prophesieth than he that speaketh with tongues: unless, perhaps, he interpret, that the church may receive edification.
6 But now, brethren, if I come to you speaking with tongues, what shall I profit you, unless I speak to you either in revelation, or in knowledge, or in prophecy, or in doctrine?
7 Even things without life that give sound, whether pipe or harp, except they give a distinction of sounds, how shall it be known what is piped or harped?
8 For if the trumpet give an uncertain sound, who shall prepare himself for battle?
9 So likewise you, unless you utter by the tongue plain speech, how shall it be known what is spoken?  For you shall be speaking into the air.
10 There are, for example, so many kinds of tongues in this world: and none is without a voice.
11 If then I know not the power of the voice, I shall be to him, to whom I speak, a barbarian, and he that speaketh, a barbarian to me.
12 So you also, forasmuch as you are zealous of spirits, seek to abound unto the edifying of the church.
13 And therefore he that speaketh in a tongue, pray that he may interpret.
14 For if I pray in a tongue, my spirit prayeth, but my understanding is without fruit.
15 What is it then?  I will pray with the spirit, I will pray also with the understanding: I will sing with the spirit, I will sing also with the understanding:
16 Else if thou shalt bless with the spirit, how shall he that holdeth the place of the unlearned say Amen to thy blessing? because he knoweth not what thou sayest.
17 For thou indeed givest thanks well, but the other is not edified.
18 I thank my God, that I speak with all your tongues.
19 But in the church I had rather speak five words with my understanding, that I may instruct others also, than ten thousand words in a tongue.
20 Brethren, do not become children in sense,: but in malice be children, and in sense be perfect.
21 In the law it is written: *That in other tongues, and other lips, I will speak to this people: and neither so will they hear me, saith the Lord.
22 Wherefore tongues are for a sign, not to believers, but to unbelievers: but prophecies, not to unbelievers, but to believers.
23 If, therefore, the whole church come together into one place, and all speak with tongues, and there come in unlearned persons, or unbelievers, will they not say that you are mad?
24 But if all prophesy, and there come in one that believeth not, or one unlearned, he is convinced of all, he is judged of all.
25 The secrets of his heart are made manifest, and so, falling down on his face, he will adore God, affirming that God is among you indeed.
26 How is it then, brethren?  When you come together, every one of you hath a psalm, hath a doctrine, hath a revelation, hath a tongue, hath an interpretation: let all things be done unto edification.
27 If any speak with a tongue, let it be by two, or at the most by three, and in course, and let one interpret.
28 But if there be no interpreter, let him hold his peace in the church, and speak to himself and to God.
29 And let the prophets speak, two or three: and let the rest judge.
30 But if any thing be revealed to another sitting, let the first hold his peace.
31 For you may all prophesy one by one: that all may learn, and all may be exhorted:
32 And the spirits of the prophets are subject to the prophets.
33 For he is not the God of dissension, but of peace: as also I teach in all the churches of the saints.
34 Let women keep silence in the churches: for it is not permitted to them to speak, but to be subject, *as also the law saith.
35 But if they would learn any thing, let them ask their husbands at home.  For it is a shame for a woman to speak in the church.
36 Or did the word of God come out from you?  Or came it only unto you?
37 If any man seem to be a prophet, or spiritual, let him know the things that I write to you, that they are the commandments of the Lord.
38 But if any man know not, he shall not be known.
39 Wherefore, brethren, be zealous to prophesy: and forbid not to speak with tongues.
40 But let all things be done decently, and according to order.
21:  Isai. xxviii. 11.
34:  Gen. iii. 16.


Christ's resurrection and ours; the manner of our resurrection.

1 Now *I make known unto you, brethren, the gospel which I preached to you, which also you have received, and wherein you stand,
2 By which also you are saved: if you hold fast after what manner I preached to you, unless you have believed in vain.
3 For I delivered to you first of all, which I also received, how that Christ died for our sins, *according to the Scriptures:
4 *And that he was buried, and that he rose again the third day, according to the Scriptures:
5 And that he was seen by Cephas, *and after that by the eleven.
6 Then he was seen by more than five hundred brethren at once: of whom many remain until this present, and some are fallen asleep.
7 After that, he was seen by James, then by all the apostles:
8 And last of all, he was seen also by me, as by one born out of due time.
9 *For I am the least of the apostles, who am not worthy to be called an apostle, because I persecuted the church of God.
10 But by the grace of God I am what I am: and his grace in me hath not been void, but I have laboured more abundantly than all they: yet not I, but the grace of God with me:
11 For whether I, or they: so we preach, and so you have believed.
12 Now if Christ be preached, that he arose again from the dead, how do some among you say, that there is no resurrection of the dead?
13 But if there be no resurrection of the dead, then Christ is not risen again.
14 And if Christ be not risen again, then is our preaching vain, and your faith is also vain.
15 Yea, and we are found false witnesses of God: because we have given testimony against God, that he hath raised up Christ; whom he hath not raised up, if the dead rise not again.
16 For if the dead rise not again, neither is Christ risen again.
17 And if Christ be not risen again, your faith is vain, for you are yet in your sins.
18 Then they also, who have fallen asleep in Christ, have perished.
19 If in this life only we have hope in Christ, we are of all men most miserable.
20 But now Christ is risen from the dead, the first-fruits of them that sleep.
21 *For by a man came death, and by a man the resurrection of the dead.
22 And as in Adam all die, so also in Christ all shall be made alive.
23 *But every one in his own order: the first-fruits, Christ; then they that are of Christ, who have believed in his coming.
24 Afterwards the end, when he shall have delivered up the kingdom to God and the Father, when he shall have abolished all principality, and authority, and power.
25 For he must reign, *until he hath put all his enemies under his feet.
26 And the enemy, death, shall be destroyed last: *For he hath put all things under his feet.  And whereas he saith,
27 All things are put under him; undoubtedly, he is excepted, who put all things under him.
28 And when all things shall be subdued unto him: then the Son also himself shall be subject to him who subjected all things to himself, that God may be all in all.
29 Otherwise what shall they do, who are baptized for the dead, if the dead rise not again at all? why are they then baptized for them?
30 Why also are we in danger every hour?
31 I die daily by your glory, brethren, which I have in Christ Jesus, our Lord.
32 If (according to man) I fought with beasts at Ephesus, what doth it profit me if the dead rise not again?  *Let us eat and drink, for to-morrow we shall die.
33 Be not deceived: evil communications corrupt good manners.
34 Awake, ye just, and sin not.  For some have not the knowledge of God: I speak it to your shame.
35 But some one will say: How do the dead rise again? or with what manner of body shall they come?
36 Senseless man, that which thou sowest, is not quickened, except it die first.
37 And that which thou sowest, thou sowest not the body that shall be: but bare grain, as of wheat, or of some of the rest.
38 But God giveth it a body as he will: and to every seed its proper body.
39 All flesh is not the same flesh: but one is that of men, another of beasts, another of birds, another of fishes.
40 And there are bodies celestial, and bodies terrestrial: but the glory of the celestial is one, and that of the terrestrial another.
41 One is the glory of the sun, another the glory of the moon, and another the glory of the stars.  For star differeth from star in glory:
42 So also is the resurrection of the dead.  It is sown in corruption, it shall rise in incorruption.
43 It is sown in dishonour, it shall rise in glory: It is sown in weakness, it shall rise in power:
44 It is sown a natural body, it shall rise a spiritual body.  If there be a natural body, there is also a spiritual body, as it is written:
45 *The first man, Adam, was made into a living soul: the last Adam a quickening spirit.
46 But not first that which is spiritual, but that which is natural: afterwards that which is spiritual.
47 The first man was of the earth, earthly: the second man from heaven, heavenly.
48 Such as is the earthly, such also are the earthly: and such as is the heavenly, such also are they that are heavenly.
49 Therefore as we have borne the image of the earthly, let us bear also the image of the heavenly.
50 Now this I say, brethren, that flesh and blood cannot possess the kingdom of God: neither shall corruption possess incorruption.
51 Behold, I tell you a mystery: We shall all indeed rise again: but we shall not all be changed.
52 In a moment, in the twinkling of an eye, at the last trumpet: for the trumpet shall sound, and the dead shall rise again incorruptible: and we shall be changed.
53 For this corruptible must put on incorruption: and this mortal must put on immortality.
54 And when this mortal hath put on immortality, then shall come to pass the saying that is written: *Death is swallowed up in victory.
55 O death, where is thy victory?  O death, where is thy sting?
56 Now the sting of death is sin: and the strength of sin is the law.
57 *But thanks be to God, who hath given us the victory through our Lord Jesus Christ.
58 Therefore, my beloved brethren, be ye steadfast and unmoveable: always abounding in the work of the Lord, knowing that your labour is not in vain in the Lord.
1:  Gal. i. 11.
3:  Isai. liii. 5.
4:  Jonas ii. 1.
5:  John xx. 19.
9:  Acts ix. 3.; Ephes. iii. 8.
21:  Coloss. i. 18.; Apoc. i. 5.
23:  1 Thess. iv. 15.
25:  Ps. cix. 6.; Heb. i. 13. and x. 13.
26:  Ps. viii. 8.; Heb. ii. 8.
32:  Wisd. ii. 6.; Isai. xxii. 13. and lvi. 12.
45:  Gen. ii. 7.
54:  Osee xiii. 14.; Heb. ii. 14.
57:  1 John v. 5.


Of collections of alms, admonitions, and salutations.

1 Now concerning the collections that are made for the saints, as I have given order to the churches of Galatia, so do you also.
2 On the first day of the week let every one of you put apart with himself, laying up what it shall well please him: that when I come, the collections be not then to be made.
3 And when I shall be with you: whomsoever you shall approve by letters, those will I send to carry your gift to Jerusalem.
4 And if it be meet that I go also, they shall go with me.
5 Now I will come to you, when I shall have passed through Macedonia.  For I shall pass through Macedonia.
6 And with you, perhaps, I shall abide, or even spend the winter: that you may bring me on my journey whithersoever I shall go.
7 For I will not see you now by the way; for I hope that I shall remain with you some time, if the Lord permit.
8 But I will stay at Ephesus until Pentecost.
9 For a door is opened to me, great and evident: and many adversaries.
10 Now if Timothy come, see that he be with you without fear, for he worketh the work of the Lord, as I also do.
11 Let no man, therefore, despise him, but conduct ye him on his way in peace: that he may come to me.  For I look for him with the brethren.
12 As to our brother, Apollo, I make known to you that I earnestly entreated him to come to you with the brethren: and indeed it was not his will at all to come at this time.  But he will come when he shall have leisure.
13 Watch ye, stand fast in the faith, do manfully, and be strengthened.
14 Let all your actions be done in charity.
15 And I beseech you, brethren, you know the house of Stephanas, and of Fortunatus, and of Achaicus, that they are the first-fruits of Achaia, and have dedicated themselves to the ministry of the saints:
16 That you also be subject to such, and to every one that worketh with us, and laboureth.
17 And I rejoice in the presence of Stephanas, and Fortunatus, and Achaicus, for that which was wanting on your part, they have supplied.
18 For they have refreshed both my spirit and yours.  Know them, therefore, that are such.
19 The churches of Asia salute you, Aquila and Priscilla salute you much in the Lord, with the church that is in their house: with whom I also lodge.
20 All the brethren salute you.  Salute one another with a holy kiss.
21 The salutation of me, Paul, with my own hand.
22 If any man love not our Lord, Jesus Christ, let him be anathema, Maran Atha.
23 The grace of our Lord, Jesus Christ, be with you.
24 My charity be with you all in Christ Jesus.  Amen.



He speaks of his troubles in Asia.  His not coming to them was not out of levity.  The constancy and sincerity of his doctrine.

1 Paul, an apostle of Jesus Christ, by the will of God, and Timothy our brother, to the church of God that is at Corinth, with all the saints who are in all Achaia:
2 Grace to you and peace from God our Father, and from the Lord Jesus Christ.
3 *Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, the Father of mercies, and the God of all consolation,
4 Who comforteth us in all our tribulation: that we also may be able to comfort them who are in all distress, by the exhortation wherewith we also are exhorted by God.
5 For as the sufferings of Christ abound in us: so also by Christ doth our comfort abound.
6 Now whether we be in tribulation, for your exhortation and salvation: or whether we be comforted, for your consolation: or whether we be exhorted, for your exhortation and salvation, which worketh the enduring of the same sufferings which we also suffer.
7 That our hope for you may be steadfast: knowing that as you are partakers of the sufferings, so shall you be also of the consolation.
8 For we would not have you ignorant, brethren, of our tribulation, which came to us in Asia, that we were pressed out of measure above our strength, so that we were weary even of life.
9 But we had in ourselves the answer of death, that we should not trust in ourselves, but in God, who raiseth the dead:
10 Who hath delivered, and doth deliver us out of so great dangers: in whom we hope that he will yet also deliver us,
11 You also helping in prayer for us: that for this gift obtained for us, by many persons, thanks may be given by many in our behalf.
12 For our glory is this, the testimony of our conscience, that in simplicity of heart and sincerity of God, and not in carnal wisdom, but in the grace of God, we have conversed in this world: and more abundantly towards you.
13 For we write no other things to you, than what you have read and known.  And I hope that you shall know unto the end:
14 As also you have known us in part, that we are your glory, as you also are ours on the day of our Lord Jesus Christ.
15 And in this confidence I had a mind to come to you before, that you might have a second favour:
16 And to pass by you into Macedonia, and again from Macedonia to come to you, and by you to be brought on my way towards Judea.
17 When, therefore, I had a mind to do this, did I use levity? Or the things that I purpose, do I purpose according to the flesh, that there should be with me, It is, and It is not.
18 But God is faithful, for our preaching which was to you, was not, It is, and It is not.
19 For the Son of God, Jesus Christ, who was preached among you by us, by me, and Sylvanus, and Timothy, was not, It is, and It is not, but, It is, was in him.
20 For all the promises of God are in him, It is: therefore also by him, Amen to God, unto our glory.
21 Now he that confirmeth us with you in Christ, and he that hath anointed us, is God:
22 Who also hath sealed us, and given the pledge of the Spirit in our hearts.
23 But I call God to witness upon my soul, that to spare you, I came not any more to Corinth: not because we lord it over your faith: but we are helpers of your joy: for in faith you stand.
3:  Ephes. i. 3.; 1 Pet. i. 3.


He grants a pardon to the incestuous man, upon his doing penance.

1 But I determined this with myself, that I would not to come to you again in sorrow:
2 For if I make you sorrowful, who is he then that should make me glad, but he who is made sorrowful by me?
3 And I wrote this same to you; that I may not, when I come, have sorrow upon sorrow, from them of whom I ought to rejoice: having confidence in you all that my joy is that of you all.
4 For out of much affliction, and anguish of heart, I wrote to you with many tears: not that you should be made sorrowful, but that you might know the charity I have more abundantly towards you.
5 And if any one have caused grief, he hath not grieved me, but in part, that I may not burden you all.
6 To him who is such a one, this rebuke is sufficient, which is given by many:
7 So that on the contrary you should rather forgive him, and comfort him, lest perhaps such a one be swallowed up with overmuch sorrow.
8 Wherefore I beseech you, that you would confirm your charity towards him.
9 For to this end also did I write, that I might know the experiment of you, whether you be obedient in all things.
10 And to whom you have forgiven any thing, I also: for, what I forgave, if I have forgiven any thing, it was for your sakes in the person of Christ,
11 That we may not be circumvented by Satan: for we are not ignorant of his devices.
12 And when I was come to Troas, for the gospel of Christ, and a door was opened to me in the Lord,
13 I had no rest in my spirit, because I found not Titus, my brother, but bidding them farewell, I went into Macedonia.
14 Now thanks be to God, who always causeth us to triumph in Christ Jesus, and maketh manifest the odour of his knowledge by us in every place.
15 For we are unto God the good odour of Christ in them who are saved, and in them who perish.
16 To some, indeed the odour of death unto death: but to the others, the odour of life unto life.  And for these things who is so sufficient?
17 For we are not as many adulterating the word of God, but with sincerity, but as from God, in the sight of God, we speak in Christ.


He needs no commendatory letters.  The glory of the ministry of the New Testament.

1 Do we begin again to commend ourselves?  Or do we need (as some do) epistles of commendation to you, or from you?
2 You are our epistle, written in our hearts, which is known and read by all men:
3 You being made manifest, that you are the epistle of Christ, ministered by us, and written not with ink, but with the Spirit of the living God: not in tables of stone, but in fleshly tables of the heart.
4 And such confidence we have, through Christ, towards God:
5 Not that we are sufficient to think any thing of ourselves, as of ourselves: but our sufficiency is from God:
6 Who also hath made us fit ministers of the new testament: not in the letter, but in the Spirit: for the letter killeth: but the Spirit giveth life.
7 Now if the ministration of death, engraven with letters upon stones, was glorious; so that the children of Israel could not steadfastly behold the face of Moses, for the glory of his countenance, which is done away:
8 How shall not the ministration of the Spirit be rather in glory?
9 For if the ministration of condemnation be glory: much more the ministration of justice aboundeth in glory?
10 For even that which was glorious in this part was not glorified, by reason of the glory that excelleth.
11 For if that which is done away, was glorious: much more that which remaineth is in glory.
12 Having, therefore, such hope, we use much confidence:
13 *And not as Moses put a veil over his face, that the children of Israel might not steadfastly look on the face of that which is made void,
14 But their senses were made dull.  For, until this present day, the self-same veil, in the reading of the old testament, remaineth not taken away, (because in Christ it is done away.)
15 But even until this day when Moses is read, the veil is upon their heart.
16 But when they shall be converted to the Lord, the veil shall be taken away.
17 *Now the Lord is a Spirit: and where the Spirit of the Lord is, there is liberty.
18 But we all, beholding the glory of the Lord with face uncovered, are transformed into the same image from glory to glory, as by the Spirit of the Lord.
13:  Exod. xxxiv. 35.
17:  John iv. 24.


The sincerity of his preaching: his comfort in his afflictions.

1 Therefore, seeing we have the ministration, according as we have obtained mercy, we faint not.
2 But we renounce the hidden things of dishonesty, not walking in craftiness, nor adulterating the word of God, but by manifestation of the truth commending ourselves to every man's conscience, in the sight of God.
3 And if our gospel be also hidden, it is hidden to them who perish:
4 In whom the God of this world hath blinded the minds of unbelievers, that the light of the gospel of the glory of Christ, who is the image of God, should not shine unto them.
5 For we preach not ourselves, but Jesus Christ, our Lord: and ourselves, your servants, through Jesus.
6 For God, who commanded the light to shine out of darkness, hath shined in our hearts, to give the light of the knowledge of the glory of God, in the face of Christ Jesus.
7 But we have this treasure in earthen vessels: that the excellency may be of the power of God, and not of us.
8 In all things we suffer tribulation, but are not distressed: we are straitened, but are not destitute:
9 We suffer persecution, but are not forsaken: we are cast down, but we perish not:
10 Always bearing about in our body the dying of Jesus, that the life also of Jesus may be made manifest in our bodies.
11 For we who live, are always delivered unto death for Jesus' sake: that the life also of Jesus may be made manifest in our mortal flesh.
12 So then death worketh in us, but life in you.
13 But having the same spirit of faith, as it is written: *I have believed, therefore I have spoken: we also believe, and therefore we speak:
14 Knowing that he who raised up Jesus, will raise us up also with Jesus, and place us with you.
15 For all things are for your sakes: that the grace abounding through many, may abound in thanksgiving to the glory of God.
16 For which cause we faint not; but though our outward man is corrupted: yet the inward man is renewed day by day.
17 For our present tribulation, which is momentary and light, worketh for us above measure exceedingly an eternal weight of glory.
18 While we look not at the things which are seen, but at the things which are not seen.  For the things which are seen, are temporal: but the things which are not seen, are eternal.
13:  Ps. cxv. 10.


He is willing to leave his earthly mansion, to be with the Lord.  His charity for the Corinthians.

1 For we know that if our earthly house of this habitation be dissolved, that we have a building of God, a house not made with hands, eternal in heaven.
2 For in this also we groan, desiring to be clothed over with our habitation, which is from heaven.
3 *If so that we may be found clothed, not naked.
4 For we also, who are in this tabernacle, do groan, being burthened: because we would not be unclothed, but clothed over, that that which is mortal may be swallowed up by life.
5 Now he that maketh us for this very thing, is God, who hath given us the pledge, of the Spirit.
6 Therefore, having always confidence, knowing that, while we are in the body, we are absent from the Lord:
7 (For we walk by faith, and not by sight)
8 We are confident, and have a good will to be absent rather from the body, and to be present with the Lord.
9 And therefore we labour, whether absent or present, to please him.
10 *For we must all appear before the judgment-seat of Christ, that every one may receive the proper things of the body, according as he hath done, whether it be good or evil.
11 Knowing, therefore, the fear of the Lord, we persuade men: but to God we are manifest.  And I trust also that in your consciences we are manifest.
12 We commend not ourselves again to you, but give you occasion to glory in our behalf: that you may have somewhat to answer them who glory in face, and not in heart.
13 For whether we be transported in mind, it is to God: or whether we be sober, it is for you.
14 For the charity of Christ presseth us: judging this, that if one died for all, then all were dead.
15 And Christ died for all: that they also, who live, may not now live to themselves, but to him, who died for them, and rose again.
16 Wherefore, henceforth we know no man according to the flesh.  And if we have known Christ according to the flesh: but now we know him so no longer.
17 If then any be in Christ a new creature: the old things are passed away: *behold all things are made new.
18 But all things are of God, who hath reconciled us to himself, by Christ: and hath given to us the ministry of reconciliation.
19 For God indeed was in Christ, reconciling the world to himself, not imputing to them their sins, and he hath placed in us the word of reconciliation.
20 We are, therefore, ambassadors for Christ, God as it were exhorting by us.  For Christ, we beseech you, be ye reconciled to God.
21 Him, who knew no sin, he hath made sin for us, that we might be made the justice of God in him.
3:  Apoc. xvi. 15.
10:  Rom. xiv. 10.
17:  Isai. xliii. 19.; Apoc. xxi. 5.


He exhorts them to a correspondence with God's grace, and not to associate with unbelievers.

1 And we helping, do exhort you, that you receive not the grace of God in vain.
2 For he saith: *In an accepted time have I heard thee: and in the day of salvation have I helped thee.  Behold, now is the acceptable time: behold, now is the day of salvation.
3 *Giving no offence to any man, that our ministry be not blamed.
4 But in all things let us exhibit ourselves *as the ministers of God, in much patience, in tribulation, in necessities, in distresses,
5 In stripes, in prisons, in seditions, in labours, in watchings, in fastings,
6 In chastity, in knowledge, in long suffering, in sweetness, in the Holy Ghost, in charity unfeigned,
7 In the word of truth, in the power of God: by the armour of justice, on the right hand, and on the left:
8 Through honour, and dishonour, through bad name and good name: as seducers, and yet true: as unknown, and yet known:
9 As dying, and behold we live: as chastised, and not killed:
10 As sorrowful, yet always rejoicing: as needy, yet enriching many: as having nothing, and possessing all things.
11 Our mouth is open to you, O ye Corinthians, our heart is enlarged.
12 You are not straitened in us: but in your own bowels you are straitened:
13 But having the same recompense, (I speak as to my children) be ye also enlarged.
14 Bear not the yoke together with unbelievers.  For what participation hath justice with injustice?  Or what fellowship hath light with darkness?
15 And what concord hath Christ with Belial?  Or what part hath the faithful with the unbeliever?
16 And what agreement hath the temple of God with idols?  *For you are the temple of the living God: as God saith: **I will dwell in them, and walk among them, and I will be their God, and they shall be my people.
17 *Wherefore, go out from among them, and be ye separate, saith the Lord, and touch not the unclean thing:
18 And I will receive you: *and I will be a Father to you: and you shall be my sons and daughters, saith the Lord Almighty.
2:  Isai. xlix. 8.
3:  1 Cor. x. 32.
4:  1 Cor. iv. 1.
16:  1 Cor. iii. 16. 17. and vi. 19. --- ** Lev. xxvi. 12.
17:  Isai. lii. 11.
18:  Jer. xxxi. 9.


The apostle's affection for the Corinthians: his comfort and joy on their account.

1 Having, therefore, these promises, dearly beloved, let us cleanse ourselves from all defilement of the flesh and of the spirit, perfecting sanctification in the fear of God.
2 Receive us.  We have injured no one, we have corrupted no one, we have overreached no one.
3 I speak not this to your condemnation.  For we have said before, that you are in our hearts, to die together, and to live together.
4 Great is my confidence with you, great is my glorying for you.  I am filled with comfort, I exceedingly abound with joy in all our tribulation.
5 For also, when we were come into Macedonia, our flesh had no rest, but we suffered all tribulation: combats without, fears within.
6 But God, who comforteth the humble, comforted us by the coming of Titus.
7 And not by his coming only, but also by the consolation, wherewith he was comforted in you, relating to us your desire, your mourning, your zeal for me, so that I rejoiced the more.
8 For although I made you sorrowful by my epistle, I do not repent: and if I did repent, seeing that the same epistle (although but for a time) did make you sorrowful,
9 Now I am glad: not because you were made sorrowful: but because you were made sorrowful unto penance.  For you were made sorrowful according to God, that in nothing you should suffer damage by us.
10 *For the sorrow which is according to God, worketh lasting penance unto salvation: but the sorrow of the world worketh death.
11 For behold this self-same thing, that you were made sorrowful according to God, how great carefulness it work in you: yea, defence; yea, indignation; yea, fear; yea, desire; yea, zeal; yea, revenge: in all things you have shewed yourselves to be undefiled in the matter.
12 Therefore, though I wrote to you, not on account of him who did the wrong, nor of him who suffered it: but to manifest our solicitude, which we have for you,
13 Before God: therefore we were comforted.  But in our consolation we did the more abundantly rejoice for the joy of Titus, because his spirit was refreshed by you all.
14 And if I have boasted any thing to him of you, I have not been put to shame, but as we have spoken all things to you in truth, so also our boasting which was made to Titus, is found a truth:
15 And his bowels are more abundantly towards you: remembering the obedience of you all, how with fear and trembling you received him.
16 I rejoice that in all things I have confidence in you.
10:  1 Pet. ii. 19.


He exhorts them to contribute bountifully to relieve the poor of Jerusalem.

1 Now we make known to you, brethren, the grace of God, that hath been given in the churches of Macedonia:
2 That in much experience of tribulation they have had abundance of joy, and their very deep poverty hath abounded unto the riches of their simplicity:
3 For according to their power I bear them witness, and beyond their power they were willing,
4 With much intreaty begging of us the grace and communication of the ministry that is done towards the saints.
5 And not as we hoped, but they gave their own-selves first to the Lord, then to us by the will of God;
6 Insomuch, that we desired Titus, that as he had begun, so also he would finish in you this same grace.
7 That as in all things you abound in faith, and word, and knowledge, and all carefulness; moreover also in your charity towards us; so in this grace also you may abound.
8 I speak not as commanding: but by the carefulness of others, approving also the good disposition of your charity.
9 For you know the grace of our Lord Jesus Christ, that being rich, he became poor for your sakes: that through his poverty you might be rich.
10 And in this I give counsel: for this is profitable for you, who have begun not only to do, but also to be willing a year ago:
11 Now, therefore, perform it ye also in deed: that, as your mind is forward to be willing, so it may be also to perform, out of that which you have.
12 For if the will be forward, it is accepted according to that which it hath, not according to that which it hath not.
13 For I mean not that others should have ease, and you distress: but by an equality.
14 In this present time let your abundance supply their want: that their abundance also may supply your want, that there may be an equality, as it is written:
15 *He that had much, had nothing over: and he that had little, had no want.
16 And thanks be to God, who hath given the same carefulness for you in the heart of Titus.
17 For indeed he accepted the exhortation: but being more careful, of his own will he went unto you.
18 We have sent also with him the brother, whose praise is in the gospel through all the churches:
19 And not that only, but he was also ordained by the churches companion of our travels, for this grace, which is administered by us to the glory of the Lord, and our determined will:
20 Avoiding this, lest any man should blame us in this abundance which is administered by us.
21 *For we provide good things, not only before God, but also before men.
22 And we have sent with them our brother also, whom we have often proved diligent in many things: but now much more diligent, with much confidence in you,
23 Either for Titus, who is my companion and fellow-labourer towards you, or our brethren, the apostles of the churches, the glory of Christ.
24 Wherefore shew ye to them, in the sight of the churches, the evidence of your charity, and of our boasting on your behalf.
15:  Exod. xvi. 18.
21:  Rom. xii. 17.


A further exhortation to almsgiving: the fruits of it.

1 For concerning the ministry, that is done towards the saints, it is superfluous for me to write to you.
2 For I know your ready mind: for which I boast of you to the Macedonians.  That Achaia also is ready a year ago, and your emulation hath provoked a great many.
3 Now I have sent the brethren, that what we boast of concerning you, be not made void in this behalf, that, (as I have said) you may be ready:
4 Lest, when the Macedonians shall come with me, and find you unprepared, we (not to say ye) should be ashamed in this matter.
5 Therefore, I thought it necessary to desire the brethren that they would go to you before, and prepare this blessing before promised, to be ready, so as a blessing, not as covetousness.
6 Now this I say: He who soweth sparingly, shall also reap sparingly; and he who soweth in blessings, shall also reap of blessings.
7 Every one as he hath determined in his heart, not with sadness, or of necessity: *For God loveth a cheerful giver.
8 And God is able to make all grace abound in you: that ye always having all sufficiency in all things, may abound to every good work,
9 As it is written: *He hath dispersed abroad, he hath given to the poor: his justice remaineth for ever.
10 Now he that ministereth seed to the sower, will both give you bread to eat, and will multiply your seed, and increase the growth of the fruits of your justice:
11 That being enriched in all things, you may abound unto all bountifulness, which causeth through us thanksgiving to God.
12 For the administration of this service doth not only supply the want of the saints, but aboundeth also by many thanksgivings in the Lord.
13 By the proof of this ministry, glorifying God in the obedience of your confession to the gospel of Christ, and for the liberality of your communicating to them, and to all.
14 And in their praying for you, longing for you, because of the eminent grace of God in you.
15 Thanks be to God for his unspeakable gift.
7:  Eccli. xxxv. 11.
9:  Ps. cxi. 9.


To stop the calumny and boasting of false apostles, he sets forth the power of his apostleship.

1 Now I Paul myself beseech you, by the meekness and gentleness of Christ, who in presence indeed am lowly among you, but being absent, am bold towards you.
2 But I beseech you, that I may not be bold when I am present, with that confidence wherewith I am thought to be bold against some, who think of us as if we walked according to the flesh.
3 For walking in the flesh, we do not war according to the flesh.
4 For the weapons of our warfare are not carnal, but powerful through God to the destruction of fortifications, we subverting counsels,
5 And every height that exhalteth itself against the knowledge of God, and bringing into captivity every understanding to the obedience of Christ,
6 And having in readiness to revenge all disobedience, when your obedience shall be fulfilled.
7 See the things that are according to outward appearance.  If any man trust to himself, that he is Christ's, let him think this again with himself, that as he is Christ's, so are we also.
8 For if I also should boast somewhat more of our power, which the Lord hath given us for edification, and not for your destruction, I should not be ashamed,
9 But that I may not be thought as it were to terrify you by epistles:
10 (For his epistles, indeed, say they, are weighty and strong; but his bodily presence is weak, and his speech contemptible:)
11 Let such a one think this, that such as we are in word by epistles, when absent, such are we also indeed, when present.
12 For we dare not rank or compare ourselves with some, that commend themselves: but we measure ourselves by ourselves, and compare ourselves with ourselves.
13 *But we will not glory beyond our measure: but according to the measure of the rule, which God hath measured to us, a measure to reach even to you.
14 For we stretch not ourselves beyond our measure, as if we reached not to you: for we are come as far as to you in the gospel of Christ.
15 Not glorying beyond measure in other men's labours: but having hope of your increase in faith, to be magnified in you according to our rule abundantly.
16 Yea, to those places that are beyond you, to preach the gospel, not to glory in another man's rule in those things that are made ready to our hand.
17 *But he that glorieth, let him glory in the Lord.
18 For not he, that commendeth himself, is approved: but he whom God commendeth.
13:  Ephes. iv. 7.
17:  Jer. ix. 23.; 1 Cor. i. 31.


He is forced to commend himself and his labours, lest the Corinthians should be imposed upon by the false apostles.

1 Would to God you could bear with some little of my folly: but do, bear with me:
2 For I am jealous of you with the jealousy of God.  For I have espoused you to one husband, that I may present you as a chaste virgin to Christ.
3 But I fear lest, *as the serpent seduced Eve by his subtilty, so your minds should be corrupted, and fall from the simplicity which is in Christ.
4 For if he that cometh, preacheth another Christ, whom we have not preached; or if you receive another Spirit, whom you have not received; or another gospel, which you have not received: you might well bear with him.
5 For I suppose that I have done nothing less than the great apostles.
6 For though I be rude in speech, yet not in knowledge; but in all things, we have been made manifest to you.
7 Or did I commit a fault, abasing myself, that you might be exalted?  Because I preached to you the gospel of God gratis?
8 I have taken from other churches, receiving wages of them to serve you.
9 And when I was present with you, and wanted, I was burthensome to no man: for that which was wanting to me, the brethren supplied who came from Macedonia; and in all things I have kept myself without being a burthen to you, and so I will keep myself.
10 The truth of Christ is in me, that this glory shall not be stopt in me in the regions of Achaia.
11 Wherefore?  Because I love you not?  God knoweth it.
12 But what I do, that I will do, that I may cut off the occasion from them that desire occasion, that in what they glory, they may be found even as we.
13 For such false apostles are deceitful workmen, transforming themselves into the apostles of Christ.
14 And no wonder: for Satan himself transformeth himself into an angel of light.
15 Therefore it is no great thing if his ministers be transformed as the ministers of justice: whose end shall be according to their works.
16 I say again, (let no man think me to be foolish, otherwise take me as one foolish, that I also may glory a little.)
17 That which I speak, I speak not according to God, but as it were in foolishness, in this matter of glorying.
18 Seeing that many glory according to the flesh, I will glory also.
19 For you gladly suffer the foolish: whereas yourselves are wise.
20 For you suffer if a man bring you into bondage, if a man devour you, if a man take from you, if a man be extolled, if a man strike you on the face.
21 I speak according to dishonour, as if we had been weak in this part.  Wherein if any man is bold, (I speak foolishly) I am bold also.
22 They are Hebrews: so am I.  They are Israelites: so am I.  They are the seed of Abraham: so am I.
23 They are the ministers of Christ: (I speak as one less wise) I am more: in many more labours, in prisons more frequently, in stripes above measure, in deaths often.
24 Of the Jews *five times did I receive forty stripes, save one.
25 *Thrice was I beaten with rods, **once I was stoned, ***thrice I suffered shipwreck: a night and a day I was in the depth of the sea.
26 In journeying often, in perils of rivers, in perils of robbers, in perils from my own nation, in perils from the Gentiles, in perils in the city, in perils in the wilderness, in perils in the sea, in perils from false brethren.
27 In labour and painfulness, in watchings often, in hunger and thirst, in fastings often, in cold and nakedness.
28 Besides those things that are without: my daily instance, the solicitude for all the churches.
29 Who is weak, and I am not weak? who is scandalized, and I do not burn?
30 If I must needs glory: I will glory of the things that concern my infirmity.
31 The God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who is blessed for ever, knoweth that I lie not.
32 *At Damascus, the governor of the nation, under Aretas, the king, guarded the city of the Damascenes, to apprehend me:
33 And through a window in a basket I was let down by the wall, and so escaped his hands.
3:  Gen. iii. 4.
24:  Deut. xxv. 3.
25:  Acts xvi. 22. --- ** Acts xiv. 18. --- *** Acts xxvii. 41.
32:  Acts ix. 24.


His raptures and revelations.  His being buffeted by Satan.  His fear for the Corinthians.

1 If I must glory (it is not expedient indeed:) but I will come to visions and revelations of the Lord.
2 *I know a man in Christ above fourteen years ago, whether in the body I know not, or out of the body I know not, God knoweth, such a one caught up to the third heaven.
3 And I know such a man, whether in the body, or out of the body, I know not, God knoweth:
4 That he was caught up into paradise: and heard secret words, which it is not allowed to man to utter.
5 Of such a one I will glory: but for myself I will glory nothing, but in my infirmities.
6 For even if I would glory, I shall not be foolish: for I shall say the truth: but I forbear, lest any man should think of me above that which he seeth in me, or any thing he heareth from me.
7 And lest the greatness of the revelations should puff me up, there was given me a sting of my flesh, an angel of Satan, to buffet me.
8 For which thing I thrice besought the Lord, that it might depart from me:
9 And he said to me: My grace is sufficient for thee: for power is made perfect in infirmity.  Gladly, therefore, will I glory in my infirmities, that the power of Christ may dwell in me.
10 Therefore I take pleasure in my infirmities, in reproaches, in necessities, in persecutions, in distresses for Christ's sake.  For when I am weak, then am I powerful.
11 I am become foolish: you have compelled me.  For I ought to have been commended by you: for in nothing am I less than those, who are above measure apostles: although I am nothing.
12 Yet the signs of my apostleship have been wrought on you, in all patience, in signs, and wonders, and mighty deeds.
13 For what is there that you have had less than the other churches; but that I myself was not burthensome to you?  Pardon me this injury.
14 Behold, now the third time I am ready to come to you: and I will not be burthensome to you.  For I seek not the things that are yours, but you.  For neither ought the children to lay up for the parents, but the parents for the children.
15 But I most gladly will spend and be spent myself for your souls: although, loving you more, I be loved less.
16 But be it so: I did not burthen you: but being crafty, I caught you by guile.
17 Did I circumvent you, by any of those whom I sent to you?
18 I desired Titus, and I sent with him a brother.  Did Titus circumvent you? did we not walk with the same spirit? did we not in the same steps?
19 Of old, think you that we excuse ourselves to you?  We speak before God in Christ: but all things, my dearly beloved, for your edification.
20 For I fear, lest perhaps when I come, I shall not find you such as I would: and that I shall be found by you such as you would not: lest perhaps contentions, envyings, animosities, dissensions, detractions, whisperings, swellings, seditions, be among you:
21 Lest again, when I come, God humble me among you: and I bewail many of them that sinned before, and have not done penance for the uncleanness, and fornication, and lasciviousness, that they have committed.
2:  Acts ix. 3.


He threatens the impenitent, to provoke them to penance.

1 Behold, this is the third time I am coming to you: *In the mouth of two or three witnesses shall every word be established.
2 I have told you before, and foretell, as present, and now absent, to them that sinned before, and to all the rest, that if I come again, I will not spare.
3 Do you seek a proof of Christ, who speaketh in me, who towards you is not weak, but is mighty in you?
4 For though he was crucified through weakness, yet he liveth by the power of God.  For we also are weak in him: but we shall live with him by the power of God towards you.
5 Try your ownselves if you be in the faith: prove ye yourselves.  Know you not your ownselves, that Christ Jesus is in you? unless perhaps you be reprobates.
6 But I trust that you shall know that we are not reprobates.
7 Now we pray God, that you may do no evil, not that we may appear approved, but that you may do that which is good, and that we may be as reprobates.
8 For we can do nothing against the truth, but for the truth.
9 For we rejoice, that we are weak, and you are strong.  This also we pray for, your perfection.
10 Therefore I write these things being absent, that being present, I may not deal more severely, according to the power which the Lord hath given me to edification, and not to destruction.
11 For the rest, brethren, rejoice, be perfect, take exhortation, be of one mind, have peace: and the God of peace and of love will be with you.
12 Salute one another with a holy kiss.  All the saints salute you.
13 The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ, and the charity of God, and the communication of the Holy Ghost, be with you all.  Amen.
1:  Deut. xix. 15.; Mat. xviii. 16.; John viii. 17.; Heb. x. 28.



He blames the Galatians for suffering themselves to be imposed upon by new teachers.  The apostle's calling.

1 Paul, an apostle, not from men, neither by man, but by Jesus Christ, and God the Father, who raised him from the dead,
2 And all the brethren who are with me, to the churches of Galatia.
3 Grace be to you, and peace from God the Father, and from our Lord Jesus Christ,
4 Who gave himself for our sins, that he might deliver us from this present wicked world, according to the will of God, and our Father.
5 To whom is glory, for ever and ever.  Amen.
6 I wonder that you are so soon removed, from him that called you to the grace of Christ, to another gospel:
7 Which is not another, only there are some that trouble you, and would pervert the gospel of Christ.
8 But though we, or an Angel from heaven, preach a gospel to you besides that which we have preached to you, let him be anathema.
9 As we said before, so I say now again: If any one preach to you a gospel, besides that which you have received, let him be anathema.
10 For do I now persuade men, or God?  Or do I seek to please men?  If I did yet please men, I should not be the servant of Christ.
11 *For I give you to understand, brethren, that the gospel which was preached by me is not according to man.
12 *For neither did I receive it from man, nor did I learn it, but by the revelation of Jesus Christ.
13 For you have heard of my conversation in time past in the Jews' religion: how that, beyond measure, I persecuted the church of God, and laid it waste.
14 And I made progress in the Jews' religion, above many of my equals in my own nation, being more abundantly zealous for the traditions of my fathers.
15 But when it pleased him, who separated me from my mother's womb, and called me by his grace,
16 To reveal his Son in me, that I might preach him among the Gentiles: immediately I condescended not to flesh and blood.
17 Neither went I to Jerusalem to the apostles, who were before me; but I went into Arabia, and again I returned to Damascus:
18 Then after three years,* I came to Jerusalem, to see Peter, and abode with him fifteen days:
19 But other of the apostles I saw none, except James, the brother of the Lord.
20 Now the things which I write to you, behold, before God, I lie not.
21 Afterwards I came into the regions of Syria, and Cilicia.
22 And I was unknown by face to the churches of Judea, which were in Christ:
23 But they had heard only: He, that persecuted us in times past, doth now preach the faith which once he impugned:
24 And they glorified God in me.
11:  1 Cor. xv. 1.
12:  Ephes. iii. 3.
18:  A.D. 37.


The apostle's preaching was approved of by the other apostles.  The Gentiles were not to be constrained to the observation of the law.

1 Then, *after fourteen years, I went up again to Jerusalem with Barnabas, taking Titus also with me.
2 And I went up according to revelation; and communicated to them the gospel, which I preach among the Gentiles, but apart to them who seemed to be something: lest, perhaps, I should run, or had run in vain.
3 But neither Titus, who was with me, being a Gentile, was compelled to be circumcised:
4 But because of false brethren unawares brought in, who came in privately to spy our liberty, which we have in Christ Jesus, that they might bring us into bondage:
5 To whom we yielded not by subjection, no not for an hour, that the truth of the gospel might continue with you:
6 But of them who seemed to be something, (what they were some time, it is nothing to me, *God accepteth not the person of man) for to me, they that seemed to be something added nothing.
7 But on the contrary, when they had seen that to me was committed the gospel of the uncircumcision, as to Peter was that of the circumcision:
8 (For he who wrought in Peter to the apostleship of the circumcision, wrought in me also among the Gentiles:)
9 And when they had known the grace that was given to me, James, and Cephas, and John, who seemed to be pillars, gave to me and Barnabas the right hands of fellowship; that we should go to the Gentiles, and they to the circumcision:
10 Only that we should be mindful of the poor; which same thing also I was careful to do.
11 But when Cephas was come to Antioch, I withstood him to the face, because he was blameable.
12 For before that some came from James, he did eat with the Gentiles; but when they were come, he withdrew and separated himself, fearing them who were of the circumcision.
13 And to his dissimulation the rest of the Jews consented, so that Barnabas also was led by them into that dissimulation.
14 But when I saw that they walked not uprightly unto the truth of the gospel, I said to Cephas before them all: If thou, being a Jew, livest after the manner of the Gentiles, and not of the Jews, how dost thou compel the Gentiles to live as Jews?
15 We, by nature, are Jews, and not of the Gentiles, sinners.
16 But knowing that man is not justified by the works of the law, but by the faith of Jesus Christ; we also believe in Christ Jesus, that we may be justified by the faith of Christ, and not by the works of the law; *because by the works of the law no flesh shall be justified.
17 But if while we seek to be justified in Christ, we ourselves also are found sinners, is Christ then the minister of sin?  God forbid.
18 For if I build up again the things which I have destroyed, I make myself a transgressor.
19 For I, through the law, am dead to the law, that I may live to God: with Christ I am nailed to the cross.
20 And I live, now not I; but Christ liveth in me.  And that I live now in the flesh, I live in the faith of the Son of God, who loved me, and delivered himself for me.
21 I cast not away the grace of God.  For if justice be by the law, then Christ died in vain.
1: A.D. 51.
6: Deut. x. 17.; Job xxxiv. 19.; Wisd. vi. 8.; Eccli. xxxv. 15.; Acts x. 34.; Rom. ii. 11.; Eph. vi. 9.; Coloss. iii. 25.; 1 Pet. i. 17.
16: Rom. iii. 20.


The spirit, and the blessing promised to Abraham, cometh not by the law, but by faith.

1 O senseless Galatians, who hath bewitched you, that you should not obey the truth, before whose eyes Jesus Christ hath been set forth, crucified among you?
2 This only would I learn of you: Did you receive the Spirit by the works of the law, or by the hearing of faith?
3 Are you so foolish, that, whereas you began in the spirit, you would now be made perfect by the flesh?
4 Have you suffered so great things in vain?  If yet in vain.
5 He, therefore, who giveth to you the spirit, and worketh miracles among you, doth he do it by the works of the law, or by the hearing of the faith?
6 As it is written: *Abraham believed God, and it was reputed to him unto justice.
7 Know ye, therefore, that they who are of faith, are the children of Abraham.
8 And the scripture, foreseeing that God justifieth the Gentiles by faith, told Abraham before: *In thee shall all nations be blessed.
9 Therefore, they who are of faith, shall be blessed with the faithful Abraham.
10 For as many as are of the works of the law, are under a curse.  For it is written: *Cursed is every one that continueth not in all things which are written in the book of the law, to do them.
11 But that by the law no man is justified with God, it is manifest: *because the just man liveth by faith.
12 But the law is not of faith: but *he that doth these things, shall live in them.
13 Christ hath redeemed us from the curse of the law, being made a curse for us; for it is written: *Cursed is every one that hangeth on a tree:
14 That the blessing of Abraham might come on the Gentiles through Christ Jesus: that we may receive the promise of the spirit by faith.
15 Brethren (I speak after the manner of man) *yet a man's testament, if it be confirmed, no man despiseth, nor addeth to it.
16 To Abraham were the promises made, and to his seed.  He saith not, And to his seeds, as of many: but as of one, And to thy seed, who is Christ.
17 Now this I say, that the testament which was confirmed by God, the law which was made after four hundred and thirty years, doth not disannul to make the promise of no effect.
18 For if the inheritance be of the law, it is no more of promise.  But God gave it to Abraham by promise.
19 Why then was the law?  It was set because of transgressions, till the seed should come, to whom he made the promise, being ordained by Angels in the hand of a mediator.
20 Now a mediator is not of one: but God is one.
21 Was the law then against the promises of God?  God forbid.  For if there had been a law given which could give life, verily, justice should have been by the law.
22 *But the scripture hath concluded all under sin, that the promise by the faith of Jesus Christ might be given to them that believe.
23 But before the faith came, we were kept under the law, shut up unto that faith which was to be revealed.
24 Wherefore the law was our pedagogue in Christ, that we might be justified by faith.
25 But after that faith is come, we are no longer under a pedagogue.
26 For you are all the children of God by faith, in Christ Jesus.
27 *For as many of you as have been baptized in Christ, have put on Christ.
28 There is neither Jew nor Greek; there is neither bond nor free; there is neither male nor female.  For you are all one in Christ Jesus.
29 And if you be Christ's; then are you the seed of Abraham, heirs according to the promise.
6:  Gen. xv. 16.; Rom. iv. 3.; James ii. 23.
8:  Gen. xii. 3.; Eccli. xliv. 20.
10:  Deut. xxvii. 26.
11:  Habac. ii. 4.; Rom. i. 17.
12:  Lev. xviii. 5.
13:  Deut. xxi. 23.
15:  Heb. ix. 17.
22:  Rom. iii. 9.
27:  Rom. vi. 3.


Christ hath freed us from the servitude of the law: we are the free-born sons of Abraham.

1 Now I say, As long as the heir is a child, he differeth nothing from a servant, though he be lord of all:
2 But is under tutors and governors, until the time appointed by the father.
3 So we also, when we were children, were in bondage, under the elements of the world.
4 But when the fulness of the time was come, God sent his Son, made of a woman, made under the law:
5 That he might redeem those who were under the law: that we might receive the adoption of sons.
6 And because you are sons, God hath sent the Spirit of his Son into your hearts, crying: Abba, Father.
7 Therefore, now he is no more a servant, but a son.  And if a son, an heir also through God.
8 But then, indeed, not knowing God, you served them, who, by nature, are no gods.
9 But now, after that you have known God, or rather are known by God; how turn you again to the weak and needy elements, which you desire to serve again?
10 You observe days and months, and times, and years.
11 I am afraid for you, lest, perhaps, I have laboured in vain among you.
12 Be ye as I, because I also am as you: brethren, I beseech you; you have not injured me at all.
13 And you know how, through infirmity of the flesh, I preached the gospel to you heretofore: and your temptation in my flesh
14 You despised not, nor rejected; but received me as an Angel of God, even as Christ Jesus.
15 Where is then your blessedness?  For I bear you witness, that, if it could be done, you would have plucked out your own eyes, and would have given them to me.
16 Am I then become your enemy in I tell you the truth?
17 They are zealous in your regard not well: but they would exclude you, that you might be zealous for them.
18 But be zealous for that which is good in a good thing always; and not only when I am present with you.
19 My little children, of whom I am in labor again, until Christ be formed in you.
20 And I would willingly be present with you now, and change my voice: because I am ashamed for you.
21 Tell me, you that desire to be under the law, have you not read the law?
22 For it is written, *that Abraham had two sons; the one by a bond-woman, **and the other by a free-woman.
23 But he that was by the bond-woman, was born according to the flesh; but he by the free-woman, according to the promise.
24 Which things are said by an allegory.  For these are the two testaments.  The one indeed on Mount Sina, bringing forth unto bondage, which is Agar.
25 For Sina is a mountain in Arabia, which hath an affinity with that Jerusalem which now is, and is in bondage with her children.
26 But that Jerusalem, which is above, is free; which is our mother.
27 For it is written: *Rejoice, thou barren, that bearest not; break forth and cry out, thou that travailest not; for many are the children of the desolate, more than of her that hath a husband.
28 *Now we, brethren, as Isaac was, are the children of the promise.
29 But as then he, who was born according to the flesh, persecuted him that was according to the spirit: so also now.
30 But what saith the scripture?  Cast out the bond-woman and her son; for the son of the bond-woman shall not be heir with the son of the free-woman.
31 Therefore, brethren, we are not the children of the bond-woman, but of the free; by the freedom wherewith Christ has made us free.
22:  Gen. xvi. 15. --- ** Gen. xxi. 2.
27:  Isai. liv. 1.
28:  Rom. ix. 8.


He exhorts them to stand to their Christian liberty.  Of the fruits of the flesh, and of the spirit.

1 Stand firm, and be not held again under the yoke of bondage.
2 *Behold, I, Paul, tell you, that if you be circumcised, Christ shall profit you nothing.
3 And I testify again to every man that circumciseth himself, that he is a debtor to do the whole law.
4 Christ is become of no effect to you; whosoever of you are justified by the law, you are fallen from grace.
5 For we in spirit, by faith, wait for the hope of justice.
6 For in Christ Jesus neither circumcision availeth any thing, nor uncircumcision; but faith, which worketh by charity.
7 You did run well: who hath hindered you, that you should not obey the truth?
8 This persuasion is not from him that calleth you.
9 *A little leaven corrupteth the whole mass.
10 I have confidence in you in the Lord; that you will not be of another mind: but he that troubleth you, shall bear the judgment, whosoever he be.
11 And I, brethren, if I yet preach circumcision, why do I yet suffer persecution?  The scandal of the cross is therefore made void.
12 I would they were even cut off, who trouble you.
13 For you, brethren, have been called unto liberty: only make not liberty an occasion to the flesh, but by charity of the spirit serve one another.
14 For all the law is fulfilled in one word: *Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself.
15 But if you bite and devour one another; take heed you be not consumed one of another.
16 I say then, *Walk in the spirit, and you shall not fulfil the lusts of the flesh.
17 For the flesh lusteth against the spirit; and the spirit against the flesh; for these are contrary one to another: so that you do not the things that you would.
18 But if you are led by the Spirit, you are not under the law.
19 Now the works of the flesh are manifest: which are, fornication, uncleanness, immodesty, luxury,
20 Idolatry, witchcraft, enmities, contentions, emulations, wrath, quarrels, dissensions, sects,
21 Envings, murders, drunkenness, revellings, and such like; of the which I foretell you, as I have foretold to you, that they who do such things, shall not obtain the kingdom of God.
22 But the fruit of the spirit is, charity, joy, peace, patience, benignity, goodness, longanimity,
23 Mildness, faith, modesty, continency, chastity.  Against such there is no law.
24 And they that are Christ's, have crucified their flesh with the vices and concupiscences.
25 If we live in the spirit, let us also walk in the spirit.
26 Let us not become desirous of vain-glory, provoking one another, envying on another.
2:  Acts xv. 1.
9:  1 Cor. v. 6.
14:  Lev. xix. 18.; Matt. xxii. 39.; Rom. xiii. 8.
16:  1 Pet. ii. 12.


He exhorts to charity, humility, &c. He glories in nothing but in the cross of Christ.

1 Brethren, and if a man be overtaken in any fault, you who are spiritual, instruct such a one in the spirit of meekness, considering thyself, lest thou also be tempted.
2 Bear ye one another's burdens: and so ye shall fulfil the law of Christ.
3 For if any man think himself to be something, whereas he is nothing, he deceiveth himself.
4 But let every one prove his own work, and so he shall have glory in himself only, and not in another.
5 *For every one shall bear his own burden.
6 And let him who is instructed in the word, communicate to him, who instructeth him, in all good things.
7 Be not deceived, God is not mocked.
8 For what things a man shall sow, those also shall he reap.  For he that soweth in his flesh, of the flesh also shall reap corruption: but he that soweth in the spirit, of the spirit shall reap life everlasting.
9 *And in doing good, let us not fail: for in due time we shall reap, not failing.
10 Therefore, whilst we have time, let us do good to all men, but especially to those who are of the household of the faith.
11 See what a letter I have written to you with my own hand.
12 For whosoever desire to please in the flesh, they constrain you to be circumcised, only that they may not suffer the persecution of the cross of Christ.
13 For neither they themselves, who are circumcised, keep the law: but they will have you to be circumcised, that they may glory in your flesh.
14 But God forbid that I should glory, save in the cross of our Lord Jesus Christ: by whom the world is crucified to me, and I to the world.
15 For in Christ Jesus neither circumcision availeth any thing, nor uncircumcision, but a new creature.
16 And whosoever shall follow this rule, peace be upon them, and mercy, and upon the Israel of God.
17 From henceforth let no man be troublesome to me: for I bear the marks of the Lord Jesus in my body.
18 The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with your spirit, brethren.  Amen.
5:  1 Cor. iii. 8.
9:  2 Thess. iii. 13.

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